Ghusl  (Bathing)

Things that necessitate Ghusl

6.1   Things that necessitate ghusl are six:

(1) The emission of sperm which has departed from its origin [which is the loins,   Mf: p.50], whilst one is in a state of sexual arousal provided this emission has taken place without intercourse. [Z: In the case of intercourse, mere penetration compels a bath there is no condition of emission].

[The departure of the semen from its place of origin without one being in the state of sexual arousal does not obligate ghusl, such as its emission upon picking up a heavy object,   ai: p.53];

(2)  the insertion of the head of the penis (circumcised portion) or a portion which is equivalent to the head if the penis is cut into the vagina or anus of a living person;

(3)  one who awakens to find a thin liquid and his penis was not erect before sleeping [Z: if the penis was erect prior to sleeping it is a likelihood that the wetness is madhi (def: 6.2 (1)), ai: p.53];

(4) when recovering from intoxication or upon regaining consciousness one finds some wetness which one believes to be sperm;

(5) upon the stopping of menstruation;

(6) or postnatal bleeding.

Even though the aforementioned things may have occurred prior to embracing Islam.
It is al-fard al-kifaya (communal obligation (def: 1.8)) to bathe a dead person.

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Things that do not necessitate Ghusl

6.2   Things that do not necessitate ghusl are eight:

(1,2) The emission of madhi [a thin, sticky, white fluid caused by amorous play or kissing] or wadi [a thick white cloudy liquid, which has no smell.  It generally exits after one urinates and occasionally before];

(3) upon witnessing an erotic dream but awaking to find no wetness;

(4) to give birth without any visible trace of blood succeeding it;

(5)  the insertion of a penis which is wrapped in such a cloth that prevents sexual arousal;

(6)  after the administration of a medicine to a sick person by his anus;

(7) by inserting a finger or something similar into the front or back passage of the private parts;

(8) and penetrating a virgin in such a manner that she does not become deflowered provided one has not ejaculated.  [Z: Her virginity remaining intact would ensure that the circumcisible parts did not meet in a way that would necessitate a purificatory bath,   Mf: p.136].

[Z: Ghusl is not fard upon a woman who during postnatal bleeding, experiences a wet dream. A single purificatory bath will suffice for both the wet dream and postnatal bleeding upon the termination of the bleeding,   Ahf 1/32].
The Fara’id (sing:  Fard  (def: 1.1)) of Ghusl

6.3   There are eleven fara’id of ghusl:

(1,2,3)  To rinse the mouth and nose and wash the entire body;

(4,5,6)  to clean the inner part of the circumcisable part provided it can be opened without any difficulty; to wash the inner part of the navel; to wash the inside of a hole which has not sealed;

(7)  to undo the plaits of a man’s hair, even if water reaches the roots.  A female is exempt from undoing her plaits as long as the water reaches the roots; [If a woman’s hair is so compact that it prevents the water penetrating to the roots then it is obligatory to open the plaits,   Mf: p.138];

(8,9,10) to ensure that water reaches to the skin underneath the beard, moustache and eyebrows;

(11) and to ensure that water reaches the external part of the vagina, [Z: that area that is generally regarded necessary to wash in istinja’, ai: p.56].

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The Sunnas of Ghusl

6.4   The sunnas of ghusl are twelve:

(1)  To begin with; ‘In the Name of Allah the Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful’;

(2) to make an intention;

(3) to wash the hands up to and including the wrists;

(4)  to wash away the najasa even though it be on separate places, [Z: this should be done before commencing the bath,   Mf: p.140];

(5) to wash the sexual organs;

(6) to perform wudu’ as one does for salah, to wash thrice and to do mash of the head;

(7) to delay the washing of the feet if one is standing in a place where water accumulates;

(8)   to pour water over the entire body thrice, or by plunging into running water or anything of similar legal status [such as a large quantity of water (def: 2.2 (4))], if after plunging in such water one remains therein a while the sunna will also be fulfilled.  [To wash thrice is sunna so as to ensure that water reaches all the required parts. By remaining under the water the sunna of making the water reach all parts will be fulfilled,   ai: p.59.  Provided that it is performed after rinsing the mouth and
nose, otherwise one is still obliged to rinse the mouth and nose, and its omission would lead to the invalidity of the purificatory bath,   ai: p.58];

(9,10) one should begin by pouring water over one’s head, then the right shoulder thereafter the left;

(11)  to rub the body;

(12)  and to be continuous in washing [Z: one should not wait so long that the previously washed limbs become dry,   ai: p.58].

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The Adab (def: 1.4) and Makruh (def: 1.6) things in Ghusl

6.5   The adab are the same as that of wudu’  (see: 5.10), except that one should not face the Qibla, because generally one is in a naked state.
6.6   That which is makruh in wudu’ (see: 5.11) is makruh in ghusl.

[Z: If the bathroom is filthy, then one should enter like one does the toilet with the left foot leading.  As mentioned it is sunna to recite the basmallah before the ghusl, however in a filthy bathroom the recitation will occur before entering the bathroom and the supplication (du`a) for after the wudu’ will be recited upon leaving.  In a clean bathroom which has no toilet, the basmallah may be recited before removing one’s clothing,  Ahf: 1/37].

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Occasions when Ghusl  is Sunna

6.7   There are four occasions when ghusl is sunna:

For the (i) jumu`a, (ii) `id prayers, (iii) for wearing the ihram (the state of consecration that pilgrims enter for hajj and `umra),  (iv) and after the zenith (zawal) at the `Arafa (def: 5.12 (r)) for one performing hajj .

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Occasions when Ghusl is Mustahab

6.8   There are sixteen occasions when ghusl is mustahab;

(1)   For one embracing Islam while free from major ritual impurity [if the person is in the state of major ritual impurity then ghusl is fard,   ai: p.61];

(2)   one who has become mature through age [the prescribed age is fifteen for a boy or girl,   Mf: p.146];

(3)   upon regaining one’s sanity [or recovering from a drunken state or upon regaining consciousness,    Mf: p.146];

(4)  after cupping;

(5)  after bathing a dead body;

(6)  for the night of immunity (laylat al-bara);

(7)  for the one who observes the night of decree (laylat al-qadr);

(8)   for entering into Madina, the city of our master Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace);

(9)   for the morning stay at Muzdalifa upon the day of immolation;

(10)   upon entering into Makkah for the tawaf al-ziyara [Z: due to the occurrence of tawaf al-ziyara, ramya al-jimar and the stay at Muzdalifa all on one day, one bath with the intention of all three will suffice,   Mf+t: p.79];

(11,12,13) for the eclipse of the sun, of the moon and seeking rain prayers;

(14,15,16) for the prayer of fear (salah al-khawf ) and due to darkness [during the day,   Mf: p.147] or a strong wind.

[Z: It is also mustahab to perform ghusl for one returning from a journey or one wanting to repent, one about to be killed, upon recovery from irregular vaginal bleeding and for the one who has najasa (def: 10.1) upon his body but is unsure exactly where it is,   Mf: p.147]

Other relevant issues:

6.9   [Z: A narration related by Imam Muslim, delineates the requirement to trim the moustache, nails, pluck the hair from the armpits and shave the pubic hairs within the period of forty days.  However, the prescription of forty days is to illustrate the maximum period one should forgo without performing the aforementioned acts and not necessarily the most preferable period.  The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) would trim his nails and moustache every Friday (before the jumu`a prayer) he would shave around his private parts after every twenty days and pluck the
hair from his armpits every forty days.

It must be borne in mind that the purpose of shaving is to remove any hair that may impede one from attaining thorough cleanliness, therefore, no minimum period can be appointed given that the rate as to which hair grow differ from person to person. The recommended method would be that one shave before the hair grow so long that they become an obstacle in attaining cleanliness provided this is performed within the period of forty days.  To exceed forty days is makruh,   Kawkab al-durri `ala jami` al-tirmidhi, 3/401.

One should shave the hair directly around or on the penis, testicles and vagina and that what is around the rear passage, Sharh sahih muslim, 3/150].

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Tayammum (Dry Ablution)

7.1   There are eight conditions for its validity:

(1)   Intention is a mental resolve upon the action. The time for the intention is when one places his hands upon the substance with which one intends to do tayammum.  There are three conditions for the validity of the intention (i) that one should be a Muslim; (ii) possess the faculty whereby one can elicit meanings; (iii) and the knowledge of what one is intending, [if one recites the intention in Arabic
without understanding the meaning such an intention is not valid,   ai: p.64].

One of three things are a condition for one’s intention of tayammum to suffice for performing salah with it: (i) to remove ritual impurity; (ii) that one becomes legally fit for salah; (iii) and to be legally fit for a specific worship which is not valid without legal purity.  If whilst performing tayammum one has intended nothing more than tayammum, then with such a tayammum one shall not be permitted to perform salah.  Similarly, when one has performed tayammum for the recitation of the Qur’an [Z:
this applies to mere recitation without touching the Qur’an], it is unlawful to perform salah with such a tayammum [because mere recitation does not necessitate legal purity], unless one was in the state of major ritual impurity.

(2)   One who has a legitimate excuse to perform tayammum, such as: being a mile from water, though in a city, illness or severe cold or one who fears that performing wudu’ may result in the loss of a limb or one may become ill. Similarly, for the fear of an enemy, [such as a human or anything else, this fear maybe for one’s life, property or something entrusted to one,   Mf: p.152], or thirst, or when the water is needed for baking bread, this does not apply to cooking a curry, in the absence of a necessary instrument for obtaining the water, [such as a rope or bucket,   Mf: p.153], upon the
fear of missing the janaza (def: 5.12 (1)) or `id prayers,  for the one whose wudu’ breaks whilst performing the janaza or `id prayers [Z: and fears that by the time he performs wudu’ the congregational prayer will have finished], even though he may have begun his salah with the Imam and then his wudu’ broke.  This ruling does not extend to the one who fears that he will miss the jumu`a prayer, or the prayer time will expire for anyone of the five daily prayers.

(3)   Tayammum should be performed with a pure earthly substance, such as soil, stone and sand and not upon wood, silver and gold. [It is unlawful to do tayammum with anything which becomes ash after being burnt, or with that which melts like gold and silver,   ai: p.64].

(4)  That all the required area be covered [which is the face, hands and arms up to and including the elbows,   Mf: p.155] with the wiping.

(5)  One should perform the wiping with the entire hand or the greater part of it; it shall not suffice to wipe with two fingers, even though by repeatedly wiping one covers the required area.  For the wiping of the head during wudu’ this repeated action will suffice.

(6)  To gently strike one’s palms on the earth twice, though these strikes maybe in one place.  If one rubs the soil already upon one’s body with the intention of tayammum this will substitute for the two strokes.

(7)   The termination of those things which are incompatible with tayammum, such as menstruation, postnatal bleeding or factors perpetuating ritual impurity.

(8)  The removal of those things which prevent mash such as wax and fat.

7.2   The reasons for tayammum and the conditions for it being fard are the same as those for wudu’ (see: 5.3).

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There are Two Integrals of Tayammum:

7.3   The wiping of the face and arms up to and including the elbows.

The Sunnas of Tayammum

7.4   There are seven sunnas of tayammum

(1,2,3) The recitation of the basmallah (def: 5.9 (2)) before commencement; the observance of the order; [as illustrated by the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace),   Mf: p.158]; to perform the tayammum uninterruptedly;

(4,5,6,7) to move the hands forwards and backwards when placed upon the soil; to shake off the
soil; and to keep the fingers wide open [whilst striking the soil,   Mf: p.158].

7.5   It is mustahab to delay the tayammum for the one who anticipates that he will attain water
before the expiry of the salah time.  And obligatory for the one who has been promised water [and
the promise is made by one who has water within the radius of a mile,   ai: p.70], even though one
may fear that the salah time may expire.

7.6   It is obligatory to delay the prayer for one [who is naked Mf: p.159] and has been promised
clothing.  It is also obligatory for one who has been promised an instrument for attaining water [such
as a rope or bucket,   Mf: p.159], however, this is when one does not fear the expiry of the salah

7.7    It is incumbent to seek water from one possessing some, if one is in a place where people are
generally not miserly with it.  If it cannot be acquired without paying the average price, then its
purchase is obligatory unless one has only enough wealth for his basic requirements.

7.8   It is permissible to perform any number of fara’id (obligatory prayers) and nawafil
(supererogatory prayers) with a single tayammum.  It is also permissible to perform the tayammum
before the admittance of the time of salah.

7.9   If half or more of the body is wounded then one may perform tayammum; [Z: in wudu’ the
four limbs which are fard (see: 5.2) will have to be taken into consideration, whilst for a purificatory
bath it is the entire body]. If, however, the greater part is free from wounds then one should wash the
unwounded limbs and wipe over the wounded ones.  It is not permitted to combine between
washing and tayammum.

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Those things which Nullify Tayammum

7.10   Tayammum is nullified by those things which nullify wudu’ and also with the availability of
sufficient water to perform wudu’ with.

7.11    When he whose hands and feet have been amputated has a wound upon his face, then he
may pray without purity (tahara) and will not be obliged to repeat the prayer.

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Mash' over the Khufayn (sing: khuf )

8.1   It is lawful for both men and women to do mash over the khufayn for minor ritual impurity.
Even if the khufayn are made of a thick substance other than leather, irrespective of whether the
soles are of leather or not.

[Z: Footwear, which is made of wool or cotton is known as jawrab. That which has a leather sole
and upper is known as mujallad, if only the sole is made of leather then it is known as mun`al.
Footwear, which is made of entirely leather, is known as khuf.  To do mash is lawful upon all the
aforementioned. However, if the jawrab is neither mujallad nor mun`al and is made of a thin
substance then it is unlawful to do mash upon it, Dars-i-Tirmidhi, 1/335].

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Conditions for the Permissibility of Mash over the Khufayn:

8.2   are seven:

(1)  That they be worn after washing the feet, even though this be before completing the wudu’, as
long as the wudu’ is completed before the occurrence of anything that invalidates the wudu’;

(2)  the khuf must cover [Z: the foot up to and including] the ankle;

(3)   it should be possible to walk continuously in the khufayn. It is unlawful to do mash over
khufayn made of glass, wood or metal;

(4)  each khuf must be free from any tear equivalent in size to the three smallest toes. [Z: If the
multiple tears from both khufs are amassed and the summation is equivalent to three toes this will not
invalidate the mash,   ai: p.75];

(5,6) the khufayn should cling to the feet without being tied; and prevent water from reaching the

(7)   at least the equivalent of three of the smallest fingers of the hand from the front of the foot
should exist, if this amount is absent then it is unlawful to do mash over the khuf, even though the
heel of the foot exists.

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Duration of Mash over the Khufayn:

8.3   A resident, i.e. a non traveller, is permitted to do mash for a day and night [twenty four
hours], while the duration for a traveller is three days and nights [seventy two hours].  The
commencement of this period is from when one becomes ritually impure after wearing the khufayn.

[Z: If one performs wudu’ at twelve and wears his khufayn and at three breaks his wudu’ then the
duration of mash over the khufayn will commence from  three].

If a resident performs mash and then decides to travel before the expiry of his period he may
complete the duration allowed to a traveller.  If a traveller who has wiped over his khufayn becomes
a resident after a day and night has lapsed, then he is obliged to remove his khufayn.  In the event of
becoming a resident within a day and night, he may complete the period prescribed for a resident.

The portion upon which it is Fard to doMash over the Khufayn:

8.4   It is fard to do mash upon a portion equivalent to the three smallest fingers of the hand over
the top frontal part of each khuf, and the sunna is to start from the tips of the toes with spread fingers
up until the shin [see fig: 3].

[Z: One wishing to wear the khuf over a bandaged foot should first do mash over the bandage
and then wear the khuf,   ai: p.75].

[The mash must be performed over the area of the khuf wherein the foot lies.  The mash of
one wearing a very long or wide khuf,  if performed over that area beneath which there is no foot,
shall not suffice,   ai: p.77].

Things that Nullify Mash over the Khufayn:

8.5   Things that nullify mash over the khufayn are four:

(1)  Everything that nullifies wudu’, nullifies the mash over the khufayn;

(2)  the removal of the khuf, this will also be effected by the greater part of the foot coming out of the
leg of the khuf ;

(3)  by water reaching into the greater portion of any one of the two feet that are in the khufayn ;

(4)  the expiry of the prescribed time [see 8.3 for prescribed periods for traveller and resident],
provided one does not fear that one’s feet will perish due to cold conditions.  [If one has such a fear,
then one is permitted to do mash until one’s conscience is satisfied,   Mf: p.170].

In the case of the latter three (2-4), it will suffice to just wash the feet [one is not required to repeat
wudu’ if already in the state of wudu’,  Mf: p.170].

8.6    It is unlawful to do mash over a turban, hat, veil or gloves.

8.7   If one has had blood drawn, been wounded or having broken a limb has tied a bandage or
fixed a splint upon the affected area, and due to the severity of the injury is unable to wash the
affected limb or do mash upon it directly, then it is obligatory to do mash upon the greater part
of the splint or bandage.

8.8    It will suffice to do mash upon the skin visible between the rolls of the bandage.

Mash similar to washing has no time limit for its validity.

It is not a condition that the bandage be tied in a state of purity.

To do mash upon the bandaged foot whilst washing the other foot is permissible.

8.9   The bandage falling off before convalescence does not invalidate the mash [Z: and there is
no compulsion to repeat the mash as long as one is in the state of wudu’ ,  ai: p.79].
8.10   It is permissible to replace one bandage with another without it being necessary to repeat the
mash, nevertheless, repetition is preferred.

8.11   If due to an inflammation of the eyes one is ordered by an [expert, Muslim doctor,   Mf:
p.173] not to wash his eyes, or one’s nail has broken and he has applied some medicine to it, the
removal of which is harmful then mash is permissible. If, however, mash itself is harmful then
one is permitted to omit the mash.

There is no obligation to make an intention, [Z: unlike there is for tayammum], for performing
mash upon the khufayn, a splint or the head.

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Menstruation, Postnatal Bleeding and Irregular Vaginal Bleeding

Menstruation, postnatal bleeding and irregular vaginal bleeding all flow from the vagina:

9.1   Hayd (menstruation): Blood, which the womb of a mature female excretes, accompanied by
no illness, pregnancy, and that she is not post-menopausal.  Its minimum duration is three days, the
average being five days, and the maximum being ten days.

9.2   Nifas (Postnatal bleeding): The blood following the birth of a child.  Its maximum duration is
forty days and there is no fixed minimum period.

9.3   Istihada (Irregular vaginal bleeding): Blood which is seen for less than three days, or more
than ten days during menstruation, or more than forty days following childbirth.

9.4   The duration of the tuhr (interval of purity between two menstruations), the minimum duration
of cleanliness between two menstruations is fifteen days. There is no maximum duration.

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Prohibitions due to Menstruation and Postnatal Bleeding

9.5   There are eight prohibitions:

(1,2,3,4) Salah, fasting, the recitation of even a single verse from the Qur’an [Z: to recite less than a
verse without the intention of reciting the Qur’an is lawful, such as reciting al-hamudu lillah with the
intention of gratitude or the recitation of the basmallah before eating,  Lub: p.43], touching the
Qur’an without a covering. [Z: The covering should be a third item such as a case or bag which is
not physically attached to the Qur’an, nor physically attached to the one wanting to touch the Qur’an
such as his sleeve,   Sharh al-hidaya li imam `Abd al-Hai al-Lucknawi, 1/212];

(5,6) entering the mosque, circumambulation of the Holy Ka`ba;

(7) intercourse;

(8)  and sexual enjoyment of any part of the body from beneath the navel to beneath the knees.

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Method of Becoming Pure

9.6    When the blood ceases on the longest duration fixed for menstruation [see: 9.1 for duration] or
postnatal bleeding [see: 9.2 for duration], intercourse is permitted without a purificatory bath.
However, if the bleeding ceases before the longest duration such has its termination on her general
habit, then sexual intercourse is unlawful unless she performs a purificatory bath. [Z: If unable to do
so for a legitimate reason then she performs   Mf: p.180] tayammum and prays or a prayer time
expires upon her. This is because upon the cessation of the blood, she had enough time to take a
purificatory bath and recite the opening Allahu akbar or more, but she did not bathe or perform
tayammum until the time for the prayer had elapsed.

[Z: If the bleeding ceases at the time of the mid-morning prayer and she does not perform a
purificatory bath or tayammum, then intercourse is unlawful until the time of the zuhr prayer expires,
Mf+t: p.97].

9.7   A menstruating woman or one who has experienced child birth will make up the missed fasts by
observing them at a later date when she is clean, but her missed prayers need not be made up.

9.8   There are five acts that become unlawful when one is in a state of janaba (major ritual
impurity): (1) Salah, (2) recitation of even a verse of the Qur’an, [Z: it is makruh to recite the
Qur’an in a place of impurity such as a lavatory, abattoir and similar places, though it is lawful to
recite the Qur’an loudly in a clean bathroom provided there is no one present whose `awra (def:
4.10) is exposed, otherwise recitation under one’s breath is permitted,  Mf+t: p.94], (3) to touch the
Qur’an without a covering, (4) to enter into a mosque (5) and the circumambulation of the Holy

9.9   There are three unlawful acts for a muhdith (one in minor ritual impurity): (1) Salah, (2)
circumambulation of the Holy Ka`ba (3) and the touching of the Qur’an without a cover.

[Z:  A woman whose normal habit of menstruation is five days, but occasionally after bathing and
praying she experiences the reoccurrence of her bleeding.  In such a case upon the fifth day when the
bleeding stops she shall delay her bath to the end of the prayer time then take a bath and pray.
Thereafter, if the bleeding resumes she shall abandon her prayers,   Ahf: 1/68].

[Z: A woman whose normal cycle of menstruation is five days, but happens to terminate upon the
fourth, will be required to fast and pray, and it will be incumbent upon her to delay the prayer to the
end of the mustahab time.  Sexual intercourse is unlawful until she completes her general habit of
five days,   Ahf: 1/68].

[Z:  Bleeding that succeeds a miscarriage which has occurred upon four months or after into the
pregnancy will be regarded as postnatal bleeding.

If the miscarriage occurred within four months of the pregnancy then it will be regarded as
menstruation, provided the bleeding exceeds three days.  Anything less than three days will be
regarded as irregular vaginal bleeding.

If four months have not lapsed and one mistakenly takes the bleeding after the miscarriage to be
postnatal bleeding and as a result abandoned prayer, these prayers will have to be made up,   Ahf:

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Laws of Irregular Vaginal Bleeding and Others of Similar Standing

9.10 The legal ruling regarding the blood of irregular vaginal bleeding is the same as that of perpetual
nasal haemorrhage and as such does not prevent the performance of salah, fasting or sexual
intercourse.  A woman suffering from irregular vaginal bleeding or one who has an `udhr (chronic
annulment of wudu’) such as being unable to stop intermittent drops of urine, or one whose bowels
have become loose, should perform wudu’ at the time of every fard prayer and pray with that
wudu’ as many fard or nawafil as one wishes. [Z: Fard prayer refers to the prescribed prayer of
that particular time or any other prayers which maybe fard to make up,   Mf: p.183].

The ablution of one suffering from chronic annulment of wudu’ (`udhr) becomes void only with the
expiry of the prayer time [or the occurrence of that which invalidates the wudu’ other than the
present `udhr,   Mf: p.183].

9.11 One is only considered a ma`dhur (one suffering from chronic annulment of wudu’) when the
`udhr remains intact for the full duration of a fard prayer in a way that it does not even cease for a
time in which wudu’ and salah can be performed.

9.12   The condition for the continuation of an `udhr is that once established (see: 9.10 for how it is
established) it should re-occur during every prayer time at least once.  The `udhr is nullified when a
complete time of a fard prayer lapses in which the `udhr is absent.

[Z: It is incumbent for one suffering from chronic annulment of wudu’ to change his clothing if they
are continuously becoming impure. This is provided that after changing his clothes he can complete his prayer before they become soiled again.  However, if this is not possible then the obligation to change them or wash them is lifted,   Ahf: 1/75].

[For a hospital patient who is sure that his clothing is impure or has a doubt regarding their purity and due to his illness experiences difficulty in changing them,  then he is permitted to pray in his soiled clothing,   Ahf: 1/75].

9.13   [Z: If a woman who is suffering from irregular vaginal bleeding forgets her normal menstruation cycle by forgetting the number of days, but is able to recall that it occurs each month, then she shall abandon her prayer for three days from the first day when menstruation normally occurs.  Regarding these three days she can be sure that they are hayd; for the following seven days she shall perform a bath for each salah, because of the uncertainty whether it is istihada (def: 9.3) or  hayd (def: 9.1).  For the following twenty days she shall perform wudu’ for each prayer, and this can be regarded as tuhr (def: 9.4).  It is lawful for her in the period of tuhr to indulge in a
conjugal relationship.

If the number of days is recalled (for example three), but in which part of the month they occurred is forgotten, then she shall pray for three days from the beginning of the month with a fresh wudu’ for each prayer because of the uncertainty of whether she is in menstruation or tuhr.  For the following twenty seven days she shall bathe for each prayer because of the possibility that she may have finished her hayd at any hour,   Mf+t: p.93].

9.14   [Z: When the blood of a woman with a set habit exceeds the maximum period of ten days,
then her set habit will be regarded as her menses and anything exceeding it as irregular vaginal
bleeding.  All the prayers that she abandoned after the duration of her set habit will have to be made
up   Lub: p.45.  The same principal is extended to a woman who has a set habit in her postnatal
bleeding,   Lub: p.47].

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