10.1 [Z: Najasa is that which is defined unclean according to shari`a].
10.2 There are two types of najasa: strong (ghaliza) and light (khafifa).
Examples of the strong najasa are wine, flowing blood, the flesh of
a dead animal and its hide, the
urine of those animals whose flesh is unlawful for consumption, the excreta of a dog and of a
predatory animal and its saliva, the droppings of a hen, duck or goose and also all those things which
come out of a human body and nullify one’s wudu’ [such as flowing blood, semen, madhi (def:
6.2), wadi (def: 6.2), irregular vaginal bleeding (def: 9.3), menses, postnatal blood and a mouthful of
vomit (def: 5.13 (4)), Mf: p.187. Vomit that is less than a mouthful, or blood that does not flow is
considered pure, Mf+t: p.103].
10.3 Examples of light najasa are: the urine of a horse,
and of those animals whose flesh is lawful
for consumption and the droppings of birds whose flesh is unlawful for consumption.
back to contents
What can be overlooked from najasa:
10.4 What is equal to the area of a dirham (def: 4.3) from
najasa ghaliza (strong filth) [If the
amount reaches a dirham then it is makruh tahrim to pray in such clothing, if it is less than a dirham
then it is makruh tanzih, Mf+t: p.104]. What covers less than a quarter of a cloth or the body from
najasa khafifa (light filth) is overlooked. Splashes of urine that are equal in size to the heads of
needles are also overlooked.
10.5 If a bed or soil which is afflicted by najasa becomes
wet due to the sweat of a sleeping
person, or due to wet feet, and thereafter traces of najasa appear upon one’s body or feet then
one’s body or feet will be classed as impure. If there is no trace they will not be considered impure.
Similarly, a dry pure cloth does not become impure when wrapped in a wet impure cloth which does
not drip if wrung.
10.6 A wet cloth does not become impure when spread upon
impure dry earth, which becomes
moist through the wetness of the cloth. Nor does a cloth become impure after being afflicted by a
wind which has blown over some najasa, unless traces of the najasa are visible in the cloth.
10.7 An object which has on it visible najasa [that
remains visible after drying, Mf+t: p.106], will
become pure by the removal of the najasa. This washing need only be performed once according to
the soundest opinion. If it is difficult to remove the najasa, then there is no harm if traces remain.
10.8 An object, that has on it invisible najasa [which can no longer
be seen upon drying, Mf+t:
p.106], should be washed thrice and wrung after each washing. [Z: On the third time, one should
wring it so thoroughly that all water ceases to drip. If the cloth is thin or of a delicate nature, then
one is not required to exert one’s total strength, Mf+t: p.107].
Najasa is removed from a cloth or body by water or any liquid that removes
najasa such as vinegar
or rose water.
10.9 Khufayn and the like become pure when wiped [with earth
or soil, Mf: p194], provided the
najasa is solid, even though it may still be wet. A sword or similar items may be purified by wiping
the najasa away [with soil or a cloth, Mf: p.194].
10.10 When the traces of najasa have disappeared from the
earth and the earth has dried, then
salah is permissible upon it, while tayammum is not. By the earth drying, what is upon it also
becomes pure, such as a tree and standing grass.
[Z: A impure cloth, if washed under a flowing tap, is not required to be washed or wrung thrice,
provided that the water used is equivalent to what would be generally used if it was washed thrice,
10.11 Najasa becomes pure when it is molecularly transformed
into something else, like turning
into salt or upon being burnt [Z: and becoming pure ashes, because its true nature has changed. An
example is grape juice which has changed into wine, thus becoming impure, and then changed into
vinegar, becoming pure again, Mf: p.196].
10.12 A cloth or body can be purified by scraping dry semen off,
whilst purity from wet sperm is
only attained by washing.
back to contents
11.1 The hide of a dead animal is purified by tanning either
haqiqiya, such as using the pods of a
sant tree, or hukmiya such as cleansing the hide with soil or by leaving it in the sun to dry. The hide
of a swine or human cannot be used even after tanning.
11.2 Slaughtering in accordance with the Shari`a purifies the hides
of those animals whose meat is
unlawful for consumption, whilst their meat remains unlawful.
11.3 Those parts through which blood does not flow do not become impure
by death, such as the
hair, cut feathers, horns and hoofs, as long as there is no fat on them. The nerve is impure according
to the soundest opinion. The musk bag is pure like musk itself and its consumption is lawful. Civet is
pure and it is lawful for one to apply its fragrance and to perform salah with it.
back to contents
adab (sing: adab): that which the Prophet did once or twice throughout his life.
`Arafa the name of a plain about thirteen miles to the east-southeast of Makkah.
`awra the private parts that must be covered.
dirham A silver coin about the size of a British fifty pence piece.
fard obligation (for more detail see 1.1).
al-fard al-kifaya: communal obligation (for more detail see 1.7).
fasiq the one who flagrantly transgresses the laws of Allah.
ghusl a bath, often refers to a purificatory bath.
haram forbidden unlawful.
istihada irregular vaginal bleeding.
istilam kissing of the Black Stone.
Laylat al-Bara Night of Immunity, occurrence of which takes place upon the fifteenth of Shaban.
Laylat al-Qadr It is the most virtuous night of the year.
Allah says regarding it the Qur’an, ‘We
have revealed it (the Qur’an) on the night of qadr. What will tell what the night of power is? It is
better than a thousand years.’
Scholars have differed regarding when this night occurs. However,
the majority view is that it occurs
on one of the odd nights in the last ten days of Ramadan.
makruh : According to the Hanafi’s is a command for abstinence from
something established by a
speculative proof. It is divided into two categories, namely, makruh tahrim and makruh tanzih
The latter is closer to haram and can also be defined as being in diametrical opposition to a wajib.
Makruh tanzih is closer to mubah and in diametrical opposition to a mustahab.
mash to wipe, sometimes referring to wiping with wet hands and at others with dry hands.
mubah permissible, a mubah act is neither rewarded nor punished.
mustahab that which the Prophet (may Allah bless him and
grant him peace) did occasionally.
mutlaq absolute, pure.
Muzdalifa a place near Makka where the pilgrims spend the night on their return from `Arafa.
najasa filth, actual or ritual.
nawafil supererogatory worship.
nifas postnatal bleeding.
qahqaha loud laughter.
ramya al-jimar the casting of the stones at Mina.
al-Saffa and al-Marwa: two hillocks connected by a course adjoining al-masjid al-haram.
sajda al-tilawa an obligatory prostration for the recitation of certain verses of the Holy Qur’an.
shari`a the embodiment of Islamic laws.
sunna literally, means a clear path or beaten track, refers to
whatever the Prophet (may Allah bless
him and grant him peace) said, did, agreed to or condemned. The sunna is a source of the Shari`a
and a legal proof next to the Qur’an. As a source of the Shari`a. The sunna may corroborate a
ruling which originates in the Qur’an. Secondly, the sunna may consist of an explanation or
clarification of the Qur’an. Thirdly, the sunna may also consist of rulings on which the Qur’an is
tawaf al-ziyarah the obligatory circumambulation of the Holy Ka`ba
after throwing the pebbles at
the jamarat. It is also known tawaf al-ifada.
tayammum dry Ablution.
tuhr interval of purity between two menstruations.
`udhr literally means excuse, technically, in the context of our work, chronic annulment of wudu’.
wadi a thick white cloudy liquid, which has no smell. It
generally exits after one urinates and
wajib an obligation established by a speculative text (for more detail see 1.1).
back to contents
Ahmad, Rashid, Ahsan al-Fatawa. H. M. Sa`id Company, 1994.
Aini, B, al-Binaya sharh al-hidaya, Dar al-fikr: Beirut 1990.
Ali, Mukhtar, Ashraf al-¦dah sharh nur al-idah. Kutub Khana Mazhari: Karachi, 1996.
Al-Shashi, Ibrahim, Usul al-Shashi. Mir Muhammad Kutub Khana: n.p., n.d.
Al-Zuhayly, Wahbah, Al-fiqh al-Islami wa adillatuh. Dar al-fikr 1989.
Tahtawi, Ahmad b. Muhammad, Hashiya ala maraqi al-falah sharh nur al-idah.
Lucknawi, `Abd al-Hai. Al-ta`liq al-mumajjad `ala Muwatta Muhammad.
Lucknawi, `Abd al-Hay, al-raf` wa takmil fi al-jarh wa al-ta`dil.
al-Islamiya: Beirut, 1987.
Keller, Nuh Ha Mim. Reliance of the Traveller. Sunna Books: Evanston, 1994.
Khan, Sarfaraz, Maqam Abi Hanifa. Maktaba Safdariya: Pakistan 1993.
Kandehlawi, Zakariya, al-Kanz al-matawari, Pakistan 1998.
Nawawi, Muhyu al-Din, Sharh sahih Muslim. Dar al-Qalam: Beirut, 1987.
Ibn al-Hummam, Burhan al-Din, Sharh fath al-qadir. Dar al-Fikr: Beirut, n.d.
Makdasi, George, The Non-Asha`rite Shafi`ism of Abu Hamid Ghazali.
Revue des Etudes,
back to contents