Allah Ta’ala states in the Holy Qur’aan: -
O You who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones and (divination by) arrows are an abomination of Satan’s handiwork. Avoid (such abominations) that you may prosper. (5:90)
Allah Ta’ala has described intoxicants amongst other things as being appalling, despicable and hateful acts of Satan and he has commanded us to abstain from them, Allah thereafter states in the next verse: -
Satan’s plan is to sow hatred and enmity amongst you with intoxicants and gambling, and to hamper you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. Will you not give up? (5:91)
This Aayah tells us how it is a detestable act of Satan, because intoxicants apart from sowing the seeds of enmity also stop you from the sole purpose of having been sent to the world, namely the remembrance of Allah.
Bear in mind that when the term intoxicant is used it also encompasses narcotics, because they to among other things result in the loss of self-control.
There are also many Ahaadith stated by the Holy Prophet in regards to intoxicants.
1) Jabir reported that the Holy Prophet said, "Whosoever drinks wine, whip him. If he repeats it for the fourth time, kill him." He (Jabir) says, A man was later brought to the Prophet who had drunk wine for the fourth time. He beat him, but did not kill him. (Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood)
The following Hadith clearly states that the Holy Prophet prohibited intoxicants.
2) Ibn Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Every intoxicant is khamr (wine) and every intoxicant is haraam (unlawful). Whosoever drinks wine in this world and dies whilst consumed in it and does not repent will not drink it in the next world. (Muslim)
3) Jabir narrates that a man came from Yemen and asked the Prophet about a wine made from corn called ‘Mizr’, which they drank, in their land. The Prophet asked, "Is it intoxicating?" He replied, "Yes" The Prophet said, "Every intoxicant is unlawful. Verily there is covenant upon Allah for one who drinks intoxicating drinks, that he will make him drink from ‘Teenatul Khabal,’ they asked, "O messenger of Allah, what is Teenatul Khabal?" He said, "The sweat of the inmates of hell or the pus (of impurities) of the inmates of hell." (Muslim)
4) Abdullah ibn Umar reports that the Prophet said, "Whosoever drinks wine, Allah will not accept his prayer for 40 days. If he seeks repentance Allah will forgive him. And if he repeats it Allah will not accept his prayer for 40 days. If he seeks repentance Allah will forgive him. And if he repeats it again Allah will not accept his prayer for 40 days. If he seeks repentance Allah will forgive him. If he repeats it for the fourth time Allah will not accept his prayer for 40 days. If he seeks repentance Allah will not accept it and he will be made to drink from the river of impurities (of the inmates of hell).
(Tirmidhi, Nasai, Ibn Majah and Daarami from Ibn Amr)5) Jabir narrated that the Messenger of Allah said; "Whatever intoxicates in a greater quantity is also unlawful in its smaller quantity." (Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah)
6) Umme Salmah narrates that the Messenger of Allah prohibited every intoxicant and Mufattir (anything which excites and irritates the mind, body and heart). (Abu Dawood)
7) Abdullah Ibn Amr t reports from the Prophet, who said, "One who is disobedient to parents, gambles, harsh after charity and a is a habitual drunkard shall not enter paradise." (Daarami)
8) Abu Umaamah reported that the Messenger of Allah said, "Verily Almighty Allah sent me as a mercy for all the worlds; and my Almighty and Glorious Lord ordered me to abolish drums, musical instruments, idols, the cross and the affairs of the days of Ignorance. My Almighty and Glorious Lord has sworn, "By my honour, no servant among my servants shall drink a mouthful of wine but I will make him drink like it from the scorching water (of hell); and none abstains from it out of fear of me but I will give him drink from the Holy fountain." (Ahmad)
9) Ibn Umar narrates that the Messenger of Allah said, "There are three for whom Allah has forbidden paradise, a habitual drunkard, one disobedient to parents, and a careless husband who establishes impurity in his family." (Ahmad and Nasai)
10) Abu Musa Al-Asharee narrates that the Messenger of Allah said, "There are three who will not enter paradise, a habitual drunkard, one who cuts of blood ties and one who believes in sorcery. (Ahmad)
11) Ibn Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah said’ "If a habitual drunkard dies, he will meet Allah like the one who worships idols." (Ahmad, Ibn majah from Abu Hurrairah)
12) Abu Musa reported that he used to say, "I do not differentiate whether I drink wine or worship these idols besides Allah. (Nasai )
From the above Ahaadith, we can clearly see the Prophet and the Islamic view regarding intoxicants. In another Hadith the Prophet has described intoxicants as: -
1. The key to all evils.
2. The head of all errors and lapses.
3. The most terrible of major sins.
4. The mother of all atrocities.
5. The mother of all evils.
Why are drugs, intoxicants so abhorrent, awful, foul and vile in Islam? Let us look at what the scholars have said regarding the effects of drugs from a worldly and religious point:
Ibn Hajar Al-Makki rahmatullahi alaihe narrates from some scholars that they are 120 worldly and religious detriments in consuming hashish (Cannabis).
Not 10, not 20, but 120 harmful things occur by the consumption of drugs.
The great Ibn-e-Seena says that large amounts of it dries up semen (The fluid that carries sperm thus rendering him incapable of passion in sexual intercourse).
Ibn-ul-Bitaar says: A group of people used it (drugs) and they became mentally deranged (insane).
Imaam Zarakhshee narrates in his book upon the prohibition of Hashish (Cocaine) from Zakariyah Razee, a famous doctor, that consuming hashish causes headaches, desiccates semen, brings about confusion, Neurosis, dries up all body fluids which could cause sudden death. Also it defects the mind, induces hectic fever, tuberculosis and oedema (dropsy).
Ibn-e-Taymiyyah (a renowned scholar) says: All the faults, blemishes, bad things in khamr (wine) are present in hashish and more. Because the majority of faults in khamr effect religion, but hashish effects to a great extent both religion and body.
Thereafter Sheikh Taymiyyah describes its faults: -
Ibn-e-Baitaar states that it is intoxicant.
All the scholars including Abu Ishaaq Sheeraazee rahmatullahi alaihe and Allahma Nawawee have stressed that it is intoxicating. Allahma Zarakhshee further writes that we have not seen anyone differ in opinion regarding this.
Ibn-e-Taymiyyah says that the fact is that it is an intoxicant like Wine. And Allahma Keerafe says that according to my research hashish is the cause of corruption and evil.
Shariah and rational thinking both point towards the prohibition of drugs.
As Imaam Zarakshee has mentioned in his book: -
All verses (of the Qur’aan) and Ahaadith which testify that intoxicants are haraam also include hashish (i.e. drugs)
The verses and Ahaadith regarding this have already been stated.
Another verse, which proves drugs to be prohibited, is: They as you concerning khamr (intoxicant) and gambling. Say " In them there is great sin and some gain for mankind, but sin is greater then the gain.
This verse, apart from informing us of how grave a sin it is to consume intoxicants, is also imparting a principle: Everything in which the evil and harm outweighs the gain is not allowed. Therefore, if we consider drugs, they deflect the sensory perceptions as well as producing hallucinations and illusions. They cause body lassitude, neurosis, decline in health, moral insensitivity etc. etc. the list is endless. Furthermore, there are no benefits whatsoever of taking drugs for recreational purposes. The perception (from Shaitan) that Class B drugs such as cannabis (dope, draw) is all right is utterly wrong. This verse clearly shows that although it seems like they may contain a few benefits, overall its evil is far greater.
It is narrated that in Sahih Muslim: Every intoxicant is khamr (wine) and all Khamr is haraam.
Imam Ibn-e-Taymiyyah states: It should be enough harm for a person just to know that it prevents you from the remembrance of Allah and salaah.
In short, everything, which obstructs a person from Zikr-ullah and salaah, is haraam like wine.
Allah Ta’ala states in the Holy Qur’aan:
And Allah has forbidden on to you the ‘khabaith’ i.e. repulsive, wicked and evil things.
What could be more evil then the thing which impairs the faculties of thought and perception in the mind?
Dailamah Al-Humairee states: I asked the Holy Prophet , ‘O Messenger of Allah ( ), Verily we are in a cold land, and we have to work hard therein, and we prepare wine from this wheat which gives as strength in our works and in the chill of our cities.’ He asked, ‘Does it intoxicate?’ ‘yes’ he replied. He said, ‘Give it up.’ I said, ‘Verily the people can not give it up.’ He said, ‘If they do not give it up, fight with them.’ (Abu Dawood)
This Hadith explains to us the principle cause of what is haraam. Chiefly, if it intoxicates it is haraam. The very same reason and cause is to be found in drugs.
Some might say that all drugs do not intoxicate, that drugs like heroin and hashish are only depressants which slackens and weakens the mind. The answer to this is in the following Hadith:
It has been narrated by Umme-Salmah, she states: The Prophet prohibited every intoxicant and muftir (every substance which slackens the mine).
Imam Zarakshee notes in his kitab: The scholars have stated that muftir is everything that causes slackness.
He then states: The Hadith (which has been mentioned above) particularly proves the prohibition of hashish because if it is not regarded as an intoxicant if definitely comes under the definition of ‘muftir’ (substance which causes drowsiness and the weakening of the mind etc.).
Moving on, the unanimity of the ummah on the prohibition of narcotics is also narrated from many scholars. Imaam Zarakshee states:
The consensus of the Ummah is narrated from several scholars in the prohibition of hashish; scholars include Qiraafi and ibn-e-Taymiyyah.
And if that was not enough, Ibn-e-Taymiyyah has further said: Whosoever regards it lawful has become kafir (Irreligious; ‘God forbid’).
The scholars of all four madhab’s unanimously agree that consuming anything intoxicating is haraam, certain plants have also been included as Imam Rafee’ clearly says that, ‘The scholars have included intoxicating plants etc. within the prohibition.’
So far the prohibition of drugs has been proven by means of the Qur’aan, Sunnah and Ijmah (consensus of the ulama). Its can further be proved by ‘Qiyaas’ (deduction by analogy) i.e. logical reasoning. When a person is intoxicated (or ‘stoned’ in street language) he does not know what he is doing. He could easily kill someone or fornicate etc. In the same manner, to feed his habit, he will most probably have to steal. These are, without a shadow of a doubt, unlawful. And there is a general rule that whatever leads to something haraam (unlawful) is in itself haraam. Thus drugs have been proven as haraam by all four sources of jurisprudence (Qur’aan, Sunnah, Ijmah and Qiyaas).
What is the legal punishment for consuming drugs?
Imam Mawardee has stressed that by consuming plants, which cause over-excitement (intoxication) ‘hadd’ (legal punishment i.e. 80 lashes) will become necessary.
Imam Qiraafi states that all the ulama of this period have agreed that its consumption is haraam. However, there is a difference of opinion as to what (punishment) becomes incumbent by drugs; either hadd because it intoxicates or tazir (reprimand) because it corrupts the mind.
In addition, in his book Az-Zakheera he states hadd or tazir will be imposed.
According to three prominent Imaams (Imam Shafee’, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmad) consuming anything intoxicating however small the amount will bring the legal punishment of 80 lashes to the person.
However, in the Hanafi madhab in Fatawa ‘Al-Khulasa lil-Hanafiyyah’ it is stated:
If an intoxicating amount has been taken then according to Imam Muhammad hadd will be necessary and according to Imam Abu Hanifah and Imam Abu Yusuf he will be reprimanded severely, but the hadd will not be imposed.
Tazir (reprimand) is such a punishment that holds no specific amount and it is for the Judge to decide.
Bear in mind that according to some scholars, in certain cases, tazir could prove to be more severe than the hadd itself e.g. When the person persistently commits the crime.
Drugs are Haraam. It is necessary to abstain from them. They ruin people’s lives physically, mentally, morally and spiritually. If anyone is involved with drugs they should stop immediately and seek help.
May Allah help and protect us all. Ameen.