CHAPTER ON THE MUBAARAK
RING OF SAYYIDINA RASULULLAH SALLALLAHU 'ALAYHI WASALLAM
Shamaa-il Tirmidhi Contents
Imaarn Tirmidhi has mentioned eight ahaadith in
(82) Hadith Number 1
Anas bin Maalik Radiyallahu 'Anhu says that the
ring of Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam was ,made of silver and
the gem stone was from Abyssinia.
According to the majority of the 'ulama
it is permissible to wear a ring made made of silver. The Hanafis say it
is not permissible to wear a ring made of bronze. iron, steel etc. In the
early stages, Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam did not
have a ring made, until it was known that the kings of Persia and other
countries did not accept or take into consideration letters that had no
seal (stamp) on them. He had begun sending letters to.the kings inviting
thern to Islaam. A seal (stamp) was made in the sixth or seventh year hijri.
The 'ulama give different opinions on the wearing of the ring. Some'ulama
say that it is makruh for any person besides the king and judge to wear
a ring. The research of the Hanafi 'ulama (may Allah Increase their number
and accept their efforts) in this matter, according to the saying of 'Shaami'
is, that it is sunnah for the kings, judges, trustees and those who need
a seal. Besides them it is permissible for others, but better not to use
it. The reason is evident that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi
Wasallam only made one when it became necessary, before he began sending
letters to the kings. This will be mentioned in hadith number six in this
chapter. Abu Daawud and others have stated that besides the kings, others
are prohibited from wearing a ring. Since it has been proven that many
Sahaabah Radiyallahu 'Anhum wore a ring in the presence of Sayyidina Rasulullah
Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam, and in other ahaadith that Sayyidina Rasulullah
Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam had permitted it, this prohibition will be
taken as that which is contrary to a more meritorious and desired act.
(83) Hadith Number 2
Hazrat Ibn Umar radiallahu anhu says that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe
wasallam had a ring made of silver. He used it as a seal (Stamp) on letters
etc., but did not wear it.
Sayyidina Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe wasallam wore a ring as has
been stated in the ahaadith. The ulama give a few explanations to this
hadith. Some have explained that it meant that he did not wear it continuously.
Some are of the opinion that Sayyidina Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe wasallam
possessed two rings, one had the seal and was used to put a stamp on letters
etc. and he did not wear this ring. The other ring was used for wearing.
In the same manner, the 'ulama have given many other explanations. According
to this humble servant the most accepted explanation is that he did not
wear it always.
It is reported in the hadith that Sayyidina Rasulullah sallallahu
alayhe wasallam was once performing salaah, he was wearing a ring on the
right hand. While performing salaah, his eyes fell on the ring. After that
he stopped wearing the ring.
In the ahaadith a similar incident is mentioned regarding a printed
cloth. While in salaah his sight fell on it. Sayyidina Rasulullah sallallahu
alayhe wasallam removed this cloth and wore another one.
Since the ring was of importance it could not be discarded completely.
Therefore he did not generally wear it. This is the nearest (most correct).
It will be stated in the sixth hadith of the next chapter that the ring
was mostly kept by Sayyidina Mu'ayqeeb radiallahu anhu.
(84) Hadith Number 3
Hazrat Anas radiallahu anhu reports that Rasululah sallallahu alayhe
wasallam had a ring made of silver and its (inlaid) gem was also of sliver.
This hadith seems to contradict the one where it is mentioned that
an Abyssinian stone was inlaid.
Those who are of the opinion that Sayyidina Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe
wasallam had two rings, say that this hadith in context is similar to it
being two rings. Bayhaqi and others also hold the same view, and according
to him there no is complication.
Those who are of the opinion that Sayyidina Rasulluahsallallahu
alayhe wasallam had one ring, give the explanation, that by Habshi (Abyssinian)
it is meant Habshi colour or Habshi style, or the maker of it was a Habshi.
According to this humble servant the explanation is that there
was more than one ring seems correct, because from the hadith it has been
proved that at different times Sayyidina Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe wasallam
had different rings. Sayyidina Rasulluahsallallahu alayhe wasallam had
a ring made for himself. His servant gave him one as a present as is evident
from different narrations stated in the book of 'Jam'ul Wasaa-Il'.
(85) Hadith Number 4
Anas radiallahu anhu relates: "When Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe wasallam
intended to write letters to the kings of 'Ajam (non arabs), inviting them
to Islam, the people said that they did not accept letters without a seal
(stamp) on them. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe wasallam therefore had a
ring made, the whiteness of which is still before my eyes."
The last sentence shows that he remembers this incident well. By whiteness
the silver in the ring is referred to.
(86) Hadith Number 5
It is related from Hazrat Anas radiallahu anhu that the inscription
engraved on the ring of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhe wasallam was
'Muhammad Rasullulah, of in the first line was engraved, in the second
line 'Rasul, and in the third line 'Allah'.
Some 'ulama have written that 'Muhammad Rasulullah' was engraved in
such a manner, that the word 'Allah' was engraved on the top. This stamp
was round, and was read from the bottom. The muhaqqiqeen (research scholars)
write that this is not proven from any hadith, but from the apparent words
we find it was written thus:
(87) Hadith Number 6
Anas Radiyallahu relates that: Rasulullah sallallahu
alayhi wasallam made an intention to write letters to Kisra, Qaysur (Ceasar)
and Najashi, inviting them to accept Islaam. The people said: '(O Rasulullah)
those people do not accept letters without a stamp on it'. For this reason
Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam had a stamp made. The ring (loop)
of which was silver, and had 'Muhammad Rasulullah' engraved on it".
Kisra is the title of the Persian kings. Qaysar
(Ceasar) that of the Romans and Najaashi that of the Abyssinian kings.
Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam sent a letter to Kisra
with Sayyidina Abdullah bin Hudhaa-fah Radiyallahu 'Anhu. Kisra tore the
letter of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu- 'Alayhi Wasallam to pieces.
When Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam heard this he said.
'May Allah tear his kingdom to pieces', and so did it happen. The letter
to the king of the Romans was sent with Sayyidina Dihyah bin Khalifah Kalbi
Radiyallahu 'Anhu. Although accepting the prophethood of Sayyidina Rasulullah
Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam, he did not accept Islaam. The letter to Najaashi,
the king of Abyssinia was sent with Sayyidina 'Amr bin Urnayyah Damri Radiyallahu
'Anhu, as is mentioned in 'Mawaahib Ladunniyyah' and other kitaabs. This
is not the Najaashi that has been mentioned previously, and for whom Sayyidina
Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam had performed janaazah salaah. This
was another Najaashi. It is not known whether he had accepted Islaam or
not, as Mulla'Ali Qaari has written in his kitaab. Sayyidina Rasulullah
Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam wrote many letters which have been discussed
in detail in the books of hadith and history. Special books have been written
on this subject. In the above hadith, three letters are mentioned, of which
a brief account seems appropriate here. One letter was written to Kisra,
which is the title of the kings of Persia. The name of this Kisra was Aparvez,
who was the grandson of Naw-sherwaan. The contents of the letter to him
were as follows: In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent the Most Merciful
From Muhammad, Allah's Messenger, to the great ruler of Persia. Peace be
upon the one who follows (accepts) righteousness and reposes a faith (imaan)
in Allah and His Rasul, and bears witness that none is to be worshipped
besides Allah, Who has no partners and that Muhammad is His servant and
Messenger. I call you towards Allah, for I am Allah's true Messenger, who
has been sent to the whole world to warn those whose hearts are alive (because
they have a little understanding-a man without sense is like a dead person),
and complete the proof of Allah (Allah's existence) to non-believers (so
that they may not say on the day of qiyaamah that we did not know). Accept
Islaam so that you may live in peace. If you reject then the sin of all
the fire-worshippers will be upon you, for they will be led astray by following
Sayyidina 'Abdullah bin Hudhaa-fah Radiyallahu
'Anhu was given this letter and instructed to give it to a governor of
Kisra who was living in Bahrain. The letter was to be sent to Kisra through
him. It was then delivered to Kisra with the governor's assistance. Kisra
had this letter read out to him whereafter he tore it to pieces and threw
it away. When Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu'Alayhi Wasallam was informed
of this he cursed Kisra. Later the son of Kisra, Sherwiyyah, killed him
in a very brutal manner. This incident is written in the books of history.
The second letter mentioned in the hadith was sent to Qaysar (Ceasar),
the king of the Romans. According to historians his name was Hiraql. This
letter was sent with Sayyidina Dihyah Kalbi Radiyallahu 'Anhu. Although
the Qaysar did not accept Islaam, he respected the letter and kept it safely.
When Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam heard of this he
said: 'Kisra tore his country to pieces, and Qaysar guarded his'. The contents
of the letter were as follows: In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent
the Most Merciful From Muhamrnad, Allah's servant and Messenger, to Hiraql,
the great (ruler) of the Romans. Peace be upon the one that follows righteousness.
After praise and salutations, I call you towards the Kalimah (Laa liaha
illlallah Muhamamdur Rasulullah) of Islaam. Accept Islaam that you may
live in peace. Allah will grant you a double reward, (because the Ahlul-Kitaab
will receive double reward if they accept Islaam, as is mentioned in the
Qur-aan at the end of Surah Hadid), and if you reject then the sin of the
tillers of the land (farmers) who are under you, will be upon you. Oh People
of the Book, come towards the kalimah, that is the same between us and
you, and that is tauheed (the oneness of Allah), that we shall not worship
anyone besides Allah and shall not make any partner unto Him, and that
we shall not make anyone from among ourselves a god besides Allah (like
the monks and priests are made gods) and if they reject (Oh you Muslims)
then say to them that bear witness that we are Muslims (we openly proclaim
our religion and now you are responsible for yourselves). -Bukhaari, I'laamus
Saa-i-leen. The portion from, 'Oh People of the Book, come towards ...
to the end, is an aayah of the Qur-aan in Surah Aali 'Imraan.
When Sayyidina Dihyah Kalbi Radiyallahu 'Anhu
delivered this letter and it was read before the Qaysar, his nephew who
was present, became very angry, and began saying, give this letter to me.
The uncle (Qaysar) asked: 'What will you do with it?" He replied: 'This
letter is not worth reading, your name was not mentioned first in the letter,
but that of his (Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam). Instead
of emperor he addresses you as a ruler etc. etc'. The Qaysar replied: 'You
are stupid. Do you want me to throw away such a letter from a person to
whom the Great Jibra-eel ('Alayhis Salaam) comes. If he is a prophet then
he should write like this'. Sayyidina Dibyah Radiyallahu 'Anhu was accommodated
with great honour and respect. The Qaysar was on a tour there at that time.
When he was returning he called all the ministers of his kingdom, and said
to them that, "I wish to bring vour, attention to such a thing that is
full of goodness and prosperity. And is a means to keep your country for
long. Verily this person ( i.e. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi
Wasallam) is a prophet, follow him and pay allegiance to him". He delivered
this long speech in a room where all the doors and windows were closed
and locked. The ministers and others became so rash with anger that they
caused a commotion and began jumping about violently, trying to run out.
Since all the doors and windows were locked, this situation carried on
for a while. The Qaysar calmed all those present and delivered another
speech, and said: 'A person who has claimed prophethood has appeared. I
was 'testing your reaction that how firm are you on you religion, and now
I have gauged it'. As was normal all began prostrating before him. Thereafter
he praised them and let them leave. In some narrations it is stated that
he kissed the letter and put it on his head. He then covered it with silk
and put it safely away. He sent for the pope and discussed this matter
with him. The pope said: 'Verily this is the last of the Prophets, the
good news of which has been mentioned in our Holy Books'. The Qaysar said:
'I also believe this, but there is one problem, if I become a Muslim these
people will kill me, and I will lose my kingdom'. I'laamus Saa-i-leen.
The Qaysar was on a pilgrimage to Baytul Muqaddas
when this letter, reached him. A trading caravan from Makkah was also there
at that time. To investigate this matter the Qaysar called the leader of
the Makkan traders. Details of thiss event are mentioned in Bukhaari. This
incident took place at the time when Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'alayhi,
Wasallam had signed a peace treaty for a few years with the Makaans at
Hudaybiyyah. An agreement was drawn up that there would be no war, between
the Muslims and the Makkans. Abu Sufyaan, who had not yet; accepted lslaam,
said: 'I once went to Shaam (Syria) during this period, of peace. At that
time Hiraql received Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam's
letter inviting him to accept Islaam. Upon receiving, this letter, which
was delivered by Dihyah' Kalbi, he asked the local people if there was
anybody in the town who knew this person claiming prophethood. They said:
'Yes, there are some people who have recently, arrived'. Thereupon we were
asked to appear before the king. A few of my companions and myself
from the Quraysh went to the king. He made us all sit near him and then
asked: 'Who of you is the nearest in relationship to the person that has
claimed prophethood?' I replied that I was the most closely related. He
asked me to come nearer to him motioning my companions to sit behind me,
and said to them: 'I am to ask him some questions. If he gives false information,
inform me. Abu Sufyaan had not yet accepted Islaam and was a staunch enemy
of Rasulullah Sallallahu'Alayhi Wasallam. He said: 'I swear that if I had
not been afraid that the people would later say that I was a liar, and
disgrace me, then I would have surely given false information, but fear
of disgrace made me speak the truth'. He then began asking me through his
interpreter the following questions:
Q. The person who has claimed prophethood, how is he regarded amongst
you according to his family lineage?
A,. He hails from a great family and is of a noble lineage amongst
Q. Was anyone amongst his ancestors a king?
A. There was none.
Q. Before claiming prophethood, was he ever accused of falsehood?
Q. Those who follow him, are they from the elite, or are they from
the ordinary people?
A. From the ordinary people.
Q. Are his followers increasing or decreasing?
A. They are increasing.
Q. Those who adopt his religion, does anyone among them become frustrated
and turn away?
Q. Did you go to war with him? A. yes.
Q. What were the results of the war?
A. Sometimes they were victorious, at other times we were victorious.
Q. Does he ever break his promises
A. No. These days we have an agreement between us. We do not know if
he will fulfil it or not. Abu Sufyaan said: 'I did not have a chance to
say anything from my own side besides this sentence'. Q. Did anyone claim
prophethood before him?
In some narrations it stated that Hiraql asked Abu Sufyaan: 'Why do
you fear that he will dishonour the treaty?' Abu Sufyaan replied: 'My People
have helped our allies against their allies'. Hiraql said you have been
dishonest'. Thereafter Hiraql continued the conversation and said: 'I asked
you about his lineage. You replied that he was of noble lineage. The prophets
are from the noble families of their people. I asked if any of his ancestors
were kings? You said: 'No'. I thought that he wanted to regain the control
of kingship. I asked if his followers were from the high class or common
and weak people. All those who followed the earlier prophets, were from
among such people (The high class felt it a shame to follow others). Iasked
if he was ever accused of falsehood before he claimed prophethood. You'
denied it. I thought that by lying to people he would begin to lie about
Allah (Na'udhu billah). (The person who does not lie to people, how can
he lie about Allah). I asked if anyone accepted his message and thereafter
became disillusioned and turned away from it (became a murtad-apostate
). You replied in the negative. This is a peculiarity of imaan, that the
love and happiness of it enters the heart. I enquired if their number increased
or decreased? You replied that they were increasing. The peculiarity of
good imaan is this till its completion. I asked about war against him?
You said sometimes he gained victory, sometimes you. This was the case
with all the prophets, but the best results were always in favour of them.
I queried about his breaking promises? You said no. This is the quality
of a prophet, for, he does not break promises. I asked did anyone claim,
prophethood before him? You denied it. I thought if someone had claimed
prophethood before, then he might be trying to imitate them. Hiraql thereafter
asked these people: 'What are his teachings?' The people replied: 'To perform
salaah, give zakaah and to uphold relationship with one's relatives. To
keep one's chastity and modesty'. Hiraql said: 'If all that you have said
is true, then verily he is a nabi (prophet). I was certain that he was
to be born shortly, but not certain that he would be amongst you. If I
were sure that I could go to him, I would surely have gone to meet him.
(But cannot go because of the fear that I will lose my kingdom and my life).
If I were in his presence I would have washed his feet. There is no doubt
that his rule will reach till where I am'. There are many other incidents
about Hiraql related in the books of hadith. He was well versed in their
holy books and was also an expert in astronomy. He therefore thought on
these lines, and did some research on it too. In some narrations it is
related that he kept the letter of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu'Alayhi
Wasallam very carefully with respect in a golden case. This was kept
safely by his children and then their offspring for many generations. The
third letter which is mentioned in the above hadith was sent to Najaashi.
It has already been stated that the Abyssinian kings were called. Najaashi.
in the lifetime of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam there
were two kings of Abyssinia. The name of the first was As-hamah who accepted
Islaam. The Muslims had migrated to Abyssinia under his rule. At that time
he had not yet accepted Islaam. This incident has been briefly narrated
in the first chapter of 'Stories of the Sahaabah Radiyallahu 'Anhu'.
Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam sent a letter to the second
Najaashi with Sayyidina 'Amr bin Umayyah Damri Radiyallahu 'Anhu. The contents
of the letter reads as follows: In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent
the Most Merciful. From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah to Najaashi, the
king of Abyssinia. You love peace. I convey to you the praises of that
Allah, besides whom there is none worthy of worship. He is the King, and
is free from all faults. He is free from all shortcomings (or the creation
is safe from His oppression). He grants peace; He guards (He saves the
creation from all calamities); And I bear witness that 'Eesa 'Alayhis Salaam
is one of Allah's Ruhs, and was the Kalimah of Allah which was sent to
the pure, clean and virgin Maryam, thus she conceived. Allah Ta'aala created
'Eesa'Alayhis Salaam from one of his special ruh's, and put life into him,
as he had created Sayyidina Aadam 'Alayhis Salaam with His hands (without
a father). I call you towards the worship of the One Who is alone and has
no partner and call you to assist in obeying His commands. I invite you
to accept imaan (faith), and follow the shari'ah with which I am sent.
Without doubt I am the Messenger of Allah. I invite you and your army towards
Allah. I have conveyed the truth to you and have advised you. Accept my
advice. Peace be on the one who follows the right path. A group among the
muhadditheen have ascertained that this Najaashi had already accepted Islaam.
After receiving this letter of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi
Wasallam he publicly declared that he was a Muslim. Some are of the opinion
that he accepted Islaam after receiving the letter. He replied to the letter
confirming that he had accepted Islaam, and that whatever was written of
Sayyidina 'Eesa 'Alayhis Salaam was word for word, true. He sent the reply
with his son, accompanied by a group of seventy people, to Sayyidina Rasulullah
Sallallahu'Alayhi Wasallam, but unfortunately the boat that they were travelling
in sank in the sea and none among them reached Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu
'Alayhi Wasallam. Najaashi passed away during the life-time of Sayyidina
Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi wasallam. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu'Alayhi
Wasallam performed janaazah salaah for him. (To perform janaazah salaah
for an absent person is a fiqhi mas-alah. Due to many reasons it had its
peculiarities according to the Hanafis). After the death of this Najaashi,
another Najaashi was crowned as a ruler. Another letter was written to
him which read as follows: This letter is from Allah's Nabi Sallallahu
'Alayhi Wasallam to the, Najaashi, great (ruler) of Abyssinia. Peace be
on the one that follows the straight path, and reposes his faith in Allah
and His Rasul, and bears witness that none is worthy of worship save Allah;
He is One; He has no partners nor any wife, nor any child; And also bears
witness that Muhammad Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam is His servant and Messenger.
I invite you to the Kalimah (Laa ilaha illahah, Muhammadur Rasulullah)
of Allah. Accept Islaam and you shall remain in peace. Oh People of the
Book, come to the word that is common between us and you, that we shall
not worship anyone besides Allah, and we shall not make anyone from amongst
ourselves a god besides Allah. And if they reject (Oh Muslims) then say
to them, bear witness that we are Muslims (openly announce their imaan).
If you do not accept my invitation (to Islaam) and reject it, the sin of
the Christians (as they are your followers) shall fall on you. At the beginning
of the letter, as is customary, Bismillah must have been written. But Bismillah
was not written in the copy from where I have taken this. It has not been
confirmed whether this Najaashi had accepted lslaam or not, or what his
name was. The opinion of the majority of the muhadditheen is that the third
letter in this hadith, which is to Najaashi, is the same Najaashi. In some
narrations with the name Najaashi, it is also stated that this was not
the Najaashi for whom Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam
had performed janaazah salaah. This is a more correct explanation. A few
muhadditheen have only mentioned the letter to the first Najaashi, and
a few have only mentioned the second letter.
(88) Hadith Number 7
Anas bin Maalik Radiyallahu 'Anhu reports: "When Rasulullah Sallallahu
'Alayhi Wasallam went to the toilet, he removed his ring".
As the name of Allah Jalla Jalaaluhu was engraved on it, he never went
to the toilet with it. For this reason the 'ulama have written that it
is makruh to go to the toilet with anything that has a venerable name or
sentence on it.
(89) Hadith Number 8
Ibn 'Umar Radiyallahu 'Anhu says. "Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam
kept his ring in his mubaarak hands (possession). Then it was kept by Abubakr
Radiyallahu 'Anhu, then by 'Umar Radiyallahu 'Anhu. Thereafter by 'Uthmaan
Radiyallahu 'Anhu. In his ('Uthmaan Radiyallahu 'Anhu's) time it fell in
the Well of 'Arees. The inscription on this ring was 'Muhammadur Rasulullah"'.
Bir 'Arees is a well near Masjid Quba. During the khilaafah of Sayyidina
Uthrnaan Radiyallahu 'Anhu the ring remained with him for six years, then
accidently it fell into the well. Sayyidina 'Uthmaan Radiyallahu
'Anhu ordered a thorough search of the well. For two days water of the
well was pulled out, but it could not be found. The 'ulama write that from
the time the ring fell in the well, mischief and revolt began, and increased
in the later years of Sayyidina 'Uthmaan Radiyallahu 'Anhu's khilaafah.
In this hadith Sayyidina Ibn 'Umar Radiyallahu 'Anhu says, Sayyidina Rasulullah
Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam kept the ring in his mubaarak hands, and in
another hadith in this chapter he denies that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu'Alayhi
Wasallam wore a ring. This has already been explained. A special answer
to the apparent contradictions in this hadith is that the meaning of Sayyidina
Rasuluilah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam kept the ring in his hands is, he
kept it in his possession. It does not necessarily mean that he wore it.
It is stated in the following chapter that the ring was kept by Sayyidina
Mu'ayqeeb Radiyallahu 'Anhu.