Shamaa-il Tirmidhi Contents
A person weeps (cries) because of some reason. At times one cries because of mercy and kindness; at times because of fear; sometimes because of fondness and-love; sometimes due to intense happiness; sometimes due to pain or-sorrow; at times due to the oppression of someone. Among these there is the crying of taubah (repentance) which is an outcome of some sin committed; one type of crying is due to nifaaq (hypocrisy), which is done for show, where one cries in salaah so that others may feel that that person is crying due to piety, humbleness etc.; one type of crying is for a request, for instance where one cries for a dead person without taking any remuneration; one type is to cry for a remuneration where for example one is paid to cry at the house of a dead person as is the custom in some areas; one type of crying is the crying of acceptance where one sees another crying and after seeing this he also begins to cry, etc. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam mainly cried due to the fondness and love for a deceased person, or for fear of, on behalf of the ummah, or because of the fear or longing for Allah Ta'aala, as will be seen in the narrations. Only these types of crying are praiseworthy. The mashaa-ikh have written, one type of crying is called a lie, that is the crying of a person after committing a sin but thereafter does not refrain from that sin. The commentators on hadith write the crying, of Sayyidina Daawud 'Alayhis Salaam was due to sorrow. The crying of Sayyidina Ebrahim 'Alayhis Salaam was due to a desire, and the crying of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam was because of love. According to this humble servant this will mean that he mostly cried at night due to love, otherwise Sayyidina Rasulullha Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam cried due to different reasons as has been mentioned. The author has compiled six ahaadith in this chapter.
(305) Hadith Number 1.
'Abdullah bin Shikh-kheer Radiyallahu 'Anhu says: ''I attended the noble assembly of Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam. He was performing salaah. Because of his crying, such sound emmitted from his chest, like that of a boiling pot''.
This was due to the total humbleness of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam. Some mashaa-ikh have written that this state of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam occurred when both the jalaali and jamaali attribute of Allah appeared together. None can control the jalaali attributes. Certainly, when the jamaali attributes appeared, at that time a sort of happiness and contentment became apparent. Through the tufayl (mediation/means) of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam the mashaa-ikh of suluk also experience these two conditions.
(306) Hadith Number 2.
'Abdullah bin Mas'ud Radiyallahu 'Anhu says: ''Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam once asked me to recite the Qur-aan to him. (He might have said this because one might be able to concentrate more when one is listens, or he may have said this for another reason, which may include many reasons. For example, the hearing of the recital of the Qur-aan is regarded as a sunnah, as a result of this deed of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam) I said: ''O Messenger of Allah, should I recite it to you when it has been revealed to you?' (Sayyidina ibn Mas'ud Radiyallahu 'Anhu may have thought this recital was for tabligh as a reminder) Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam said: 'I love to hear it from another person'' Thereupon I began reciting Surah Nisaa (which begins from the last quarter of the 4th juz). When I reached this aayah: ''But how (will it be with them) when We bring of every people a witness, and We bring thee (O Muhammed) a witness against these?''-Surah Nisaa,41 I saw tears flowing from both eyes of Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam"
This crying of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam was due to the listening of the words of Allah, and this befits the dignity of the Qur-aan. Imaam Nawawi writes that to cry whilst reciting the Qur-aan is the quality of the 'aarifeen and a sign of the saaliheen. Allah Ta'aala has praised these people in the Qur-aan at many places. Allah Ta'aala says: "When the revelations of the Beneficent were recited unto them, they fell down (into sajdah), adoring and weeping".-Surah Maryam, 58.
"Lo! those who were given knowledge before it, when it is read unto them, fall down prostrate on their faces, adoring".-Surah Israa (Bani Israa-eel), 107.
By this it.is clear that who can confirm more to these aayaat than Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam. It is not imaginable that the crying of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam was due to the greatness and Jalal of the Qur-aan. In this case, it is possible that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam must have been crying from before and Sayyidina 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud Radiyallahu 'Anhu must have observed it only after Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam had been crying for some time. It may also be possible that he began crying specially after the reciting of the aayah. The translation of this aayah is: "But how (will it be with them) when We bring of every people a witness, and We bring thee (0 Muhammad) a witness against these?'-Suratun Nisaa, 41.
Sayyidina Rasulullah Saliallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam will be called to give evidence on these people. This is the scene of qiyaamah. On that day every nabi will be called upon to give evidence as a witness. The events of which are described in detail in the ahaadith of the day of mah-shar. In this manner it is possible that this crying of Sayyidina Rasuluilah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam will be due to the difficult times on the day of qiyaamah and mah-shar. Every person will be engrossed and worried of one's self only. It is possible that in this aayah Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam is being commanded to appear as a witness. And he fears the intense burden of being called up as a witness. It is stated in a hadith that at the time when this aayah was revealed, Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam said: 'O Allah, how can I be a witness of those who were not in my presence?' Some of the 'ulama have written that at the mentioning of this aayah, the scene of qiyaamah came before him, and the fikr of the ummah was always with Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam. He may have cried because of the sins of the ummah. For this, every event is such, that it can be the cause of crying. All this and besides this, there could be other reasons too for his crying.
(307) Hadith Number 3.
'Abdullah bin 'Umar Radiyallahu 'Anhu reports: ''In the time of Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam there once occurred a solar eclipse (According to the majority of the 'ulama this incident took place in the tenth year hijri). Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam went into the masjid, commenced salaah, and stood in qiyaam for so long that it was felt that he did not intend to perform the ruku'. (In another narration it is stated that he recited the Surah Baqarah.) He then performed such a long ruku as if he did not want to come up from the Ruku'. Then in the same manner after standing up from the ruku' he stood up for such a long time as if he did not want to perform sajdah, here too he kept his mubaarak head on the ground for such a long time as if he was not going to lift his mubaarak head . In this manner he did the same after lifting the head and sitting in jalsa, and after the jalsa in the second sajdah.In short, in every rukn of the salaah this was done, that every rukn was so long, as if this rukn was going to be performed till the end, and there is nothing after it. (In the same manner he performed the second rak'ah, and in the last sajdah), due to the intense fear he began taking heavy breaths and crying, and began pleading to the Almighty Allah that 'O Allah, it is only You that have promised that when these people make istighfaar there will be no punishment'. This saying of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam refers to the aayah that is at the end of the ninth juz: ''But Allah would not punish them while thou was with them, nor will He punish them while they seek forgiveness;;.-Surah Al-Anfaal,33.
When Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam completed the salaah, the sun had cleared already. Rasulullah Sallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam delivered a sermon after this. After uttering the hamd and thanaa, he talked o this subject, that the sun and moon does not eclipse because of the death or birth of anyone, but both are from among the signs of Allah Ta'aala. (That gives His creation a warning so that they may fear Him). When the eclipses occurs then immediately turn towards Allah (begin istighfaar and performing salaah)''.
The reason for delivering this sermon was that in the days of jaahiliyyah it was a general understanding that the eclipse of the sun and moon were due to the death or birth of a great personality. Coincidently it so happened that when Sayyidina Ebrahim Radiyallahu 'Anhu, the son of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam passed away, an eclipse took place. Therefore this nurtured the view held during the days of jaahiliyyah. People began saying that the eclipse was the result of the death of Sayyidina Ebrahim Radiyallahu 'Anhu. The a-immah differ in that during the solar eclipse should one or more than one ruku' be performed in one rak'ah. The Hanafis say that only one ruku' should be performed (in one rak'ah). This hadith strengthens their view. However scholarly differences and the proofs of the opposing schools are not relevant here.
(308) Hadith Number 4.
Ibn 'Abbaas Radiyallahu 'Anhu reports that one of the daughters of Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam was on her death bed. Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam picked her up and put her before him. She passed away in his presence. Ummi Ayman (who was a slave girl of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam) began wailing aloud. Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam said: "Are you crying before the Messenger of Allah?" (because tears were also flowing from the eyes of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu'Alayhi Wasallam). She said: 'Do I not see you cry?' Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam replied: "This crying is not prohibited. It is a mercy of Allah". (He softens the hearts of His servants, and creates love and mercy in them). Rasulullah Sallallahu'Alayhi Wasallam then said: "A Muslim is at peace at all times. even when his soul is being taken out, he is busy uttering the hamd (praises) of Allah".
The 'ulama differ in that with which daughter did this incident take place. According to the muhadditheen and historians this did not take place with any of his daughters but with that of a grandson or grandaughter. It is also possible that this took place with one of the sons. Such incidents took place with his male offspring. With whomsoever this incident may have taken place, the object here is to describe the softheartedness of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi 'Wasallam, and that stone heartedness is contrary to kindness. To have natural love for children is not against the dignity and sanctity of Prophethood. To be soft hearted is praiseworthy.
(309) Hadith Number 5.
'Aayeshah Radiyallahu 'Anha reports: "Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam kissed the forehead of 'Uthmaan bin Maz'oon after his death. At that time tears were flowing from his eyes".
This great Sahaabi was a foster brother of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam. He was the thirteenth person to accept Islaam in its early stages. He first migrated to Abyssynia then to Madinah. He was very pious and devoted. At the time when it was still lawful to drink intoxicants, he had already abstained from imbibing it, He was the first among the Muhaajireen to pass away. He passed away in Sha'baan in the second year hijri and was buried in the Jannatul Baqi.
(310) Hadith Number 6.
Anas Radiyallahu 'Anhu reports: "Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam was sitting at the grave of his daughter (Sayyiditina Ummi Kulthum Radiyallahu 'Anha) and tears were flowing from his eyes. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam said: 'That person should enter the grave who did not have sexual relations that (previous) night'. Abu Talhah Radiyallahu 'Anhu replied: 'I did not'. At the request of Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam he entered her grave".
It is said that this was an obscure hint to Sayyidina 'Uthmaan Radiyallahu 'Anhu and that is, although his wife, the daughter of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam being very ill, that she passed away that same day, he was with one of his slave girls that night. Some 'ulama did not translate the word 'Lam Yuqaarif' as 'the one who did not commit sexual relations' but as 'the one who did not commit a sin'. Some 'ulama have translated it as 'did not speak' as Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam did not like to speak after 'eshaa. The most famous explanation is the one used above. There is no difficulty in explaining 'Ta'reed' (an obscure hint) too, a person does hint to one with whom one has a strong relationship. If Sayyidina 'Uthmaan Radiyallahu 'Anhu did this because of a strong urge, then there is no harm, also who knows when one will die. It is possible that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam wanted to mildly bring it to his notice, but not scold him. It may not be surprising that the reason for this is that the marriage of Sayyiditina Ummi Kulthum Radiyallahu 'Anha was important, as this took place at the commandment of Allah Ta'aala. When the first wife of Sayyidina 'Uthmaan Radiyallahu 'Anhu, the elder sister of Siyyiditina Ummi Kulthum Radiyallahu 'Anha passed away, Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam said: 'if I had a hundred daughters, and if every one died one after another, I would have married each one of them one after the other to'Uthmaan. 'Jibra-eel 'Alayhis Salaam says that Allah Ta'aala has commanded that I give the hand of Sayyidtina Ummi Kulthum Radiyallahu 'Anha in the marriage of Sayyidina 'Uthmaan Radiyallahu 'Anhu.' In this manner it will surely warrant that at the time of the illness of such a wife like Sayyiditina Ummi Kulthum Radiyallahu 'Anha, a mild and obscure hint be given. And Allah knows best.
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