History of Ahamadabad taken from Mashaike Ahmadabad by Shaykh Yusuf Motala saheb




The making of Ahmadabad. 2

Mosques. 5


The making of the city’s four walls. 6

The residents of these provinces. 7

The mosque of 98 Domes. 11

The Jame mosque of Ahmadabad. 11

The buildings of Sayed Meerahn. 12

Gardens. 12

Attractive Gardens. 13

The garden of Fatah: 15

A stroll in the Garden of Sikanderee: 15

The cultivation of Roses: 15

Staying on the shore of Lake Kakarya: 16


How was this Lake?. 16

Factories. 17

The effect of its Blessed Name: 17

Shipping Industry. 19

The Royal Cannon of Bahadur Shah. 19

Gun Industry. 20

Sword. 20

The Madaris of Ahmadabad. 20

The Madrassah of Saif Khan. 20

Sheikul-Islam  Madrassah. 20

Madrassah Sar Khez. 21

Madrassah Wajeehuddin. 21

Madrassah Usmanpur 21

The Madrassah of Waliyullah. 21

Darul-Irshad. 22

Technical Education. 22

Educational Institutes and Libraries. 22

The Library of Usmanpura. 23

The Library of Khanqa Sarkez. 23

The Library of Shah Alam.. 23

The Library of Shah Jahan. 24

The Library of Madrassah Hidayat Baksh. 24

The Libray of Madrassah Waliyullah. 24

The Library of Shia Boharun. 24

The Library of Ahmadabad’s centre of Justice. 25

The Library of Sheikh Hadhrami 25

The Library of Itimad Khan Gujarati 25

The Library of Kazee Burhanuddin. 26

The Library of Madrassah Sheik-ul-Islam.. 26

Some other Libraries. 26

The Library of Waliyullah. 27

The Library of Asif Khan. 27

The oldest copy of Sahih Muslim in the Library of Sultan Mahmud. 27


The effect of Gujarat on Dakkan. 30

Old Urdu proverbs. 31

Request by Jahanghir for an Urdu Transalation. 32

The Ahmadabad of the Ahle-Sunnat 32

The (appreciation) respect for scholars and saints. 32

Music. 33

The Lords/Leaders or Sadaat of Ahmadabad. 33

A final look at Ahmadabad. 34

Wealth. 34

Destruction at the hands of the Mughals: 35

Conclusion. 35



The making of Ahmadabad


After the death of the Sultan Muzzafar Khan his grandson Sultan Ahmad sat on the throne. He also became the disciple of Sheikh Ahmad Khatwee. One day Sultan Ahmad requested from his Sheikh a meeting with Hazrat Kizar. He replied: I will ask Hazrat Kizar. If he agrees so then it may be possible.


Sheikh asked, and Hazrat Kizar replied: ‘he should remain in God’s worship for forty days. Thus the Sultan stayed in worship for a period of one month, upon which it was ordered that he complete another two periods. After completing three periods the Sultan was sat in Sheikh Ahmad’s room when Hazrat Kizar came into the room after the Morning Prayer. During the conversation Sultan Ahmad made a request that ‘show me something wonderful from the world,’ he replied: ‘on the edge of the river Saburmuttee, where these days there is desert, there used to be city, which was called Baadaahbad and the people of this city where well-off and rich. One day I felt hungry and I went into this city. I came to a sweet shop, intending to purchase some sweets in exchange for 3 tinka’s when the shopkeeper said immediately after seeing me: ‘You seem a saint to me, I cannot take any money from you, but take as much sweet as you like.’ After a period of time I passed again from there and there was no sign of the people of this city, nor of the shops or buildings. Upon its ruins I saw a 150 year old man. I asked him regarding this city to which he replied: ‘I do not know about this city too; however I have heard from my elders that there used to be a city here, which was called Baadaahbad.  Sultan asked Hazrat Kizar’s permission in regards to that if he so wished I could order that a city be made there. Hazrat Kizar replied: ‘that is not a problem, however there is a condition that from the whole country four such persons should be brought forth, whose name is Ahmad and who have in their whole life not even missed the Voluntary late afternoon prayer, and these persons lay the foundations for this city and this city be called Ahmadabad. Thus it was ordered that four such persons be found.  In the whole of Gujarat only two persons where found whose name’s where Ahmad. One the Judge Ahmad and the other Malak Ahmad. But apart from these two none other could be found. Hazrat Sheikh Ahmad said: ‘The third Ahmad is me,’ Hearing this Sultan Ahmad stated: ‘I am the fourth Ahmad,  I have not missed the voluntary late afternoon prayers until today. Thus collectively all four of them came to the shore of River Sabarmatee. This place which Hazrat Kizar pointed out, there on the 7th of Zil-qaad 813 the foundation of Ahmadabad where laid. 360 areas where developed.  Every single area was an entire village. (In this present day the development of the colony is upon this model)


 It is written in Mirat-e-sikandaree that Sultan Ahmad laid the foundation of Ahmadabad. Its structure started in Zil-qaad 813/1411AD and it was completed in 816/1414AD. Four persons named Ahmad laid its foundation namely Kutbul-Mashaaikh Sheikh Ahmad Khatu, Sultan Ahmad, Sheikh Ahmad and Mullah Ahmad.


In this way the foundation stone was laid by his blessed hand in the years of 810/813.


When Sheikh Ahmad Khatu went to lay the foundation stone he saw a pious person sat on his way. That saint called out to him. The Sheikh went to him and for a short while they both spoke to one another. Then taking leave of this pious saint he left and then laid down the foundation of Ahmadabad. After a while Sheikh Ahmad Khatu was asked by one of his servants in regards to that saint, to this he replied: ‘that was Hazrat Kizar,’ and he said: ‘go, lay the foundation, it will be a very good city.’


At the end of Miraat-e-ahmadi it states that: ‘The four people named Ahmad who were present at the placing of the foundation stone of Ahmadabad and the twelve pious saints who helped in the making of its fortress are as follows:


1)     Sheikh Ahmad Khatu, whose tomb is in Sarkheej;

2)     Sultan Ahmad the maker of Ahmadabad;

3)     Malak Ahmad whose tomb is next to the Kalupur door;

4)     Khadi Ahmad Lajhar who is mentioned with the saints of Patan.


From the 12 saints are:-


1)     Saint Kuju

2)     Saint Laru and

3)     Saint Karamat


The above three are buried in Daulkah.


4)     Saint Ali Sher

5)     Saint Mahmood


These two are buried in Sarkheej and resided there.


6)     Saint Ali Sher : He was very absorbed and remained without clothes. Whenever Hazrat Ahmad Khatu came to meet him he used to request in Gujarati that: ‘Bring clothes, the one who confines Sharah is here.

7)     Saint Luluee, who is also known as Baboo Muhammad, his burial is in Manjhuri.

8)     Saint Ahmad Hanghuri, who is known as Nalbhandi, he wasn’t from Nalbhand, however on Nukhas Street, the old mosque in front of Masjid Nalbhand, Where all Nalbhand used to gather and sit, he used to sit also, for this reason he was also known as Nalbhandi, he received his sainthood through the chain of Sultan Nizamuddin.

9)     Saint Ludha, who is buried close to Kharki

10) Saint Dokhal who is buried between the doors of Delhi and Shah-e-poor.

11) Saint Sayyah who is buried in Bir-makanam.

12) Saint Kamal Kirmani, his grave is next to the mosque with one minaret in Bahrampur. However there is some conflict over this, some say that Saint Kamal Kirmani is buried here, some say that Saint Kamal Malwee is buried there. This Saint also received his Saint hood from the chain of Sultan Nizamuddin. 


Saint Luluee is the disciple of Sheikh Nizamuddin’s prominent Khalifah Nasiruddin Chirag Dehlwi. Saint Dhawkal is the disciple of Saint Tawakul, the same Saint Tawakul is the Disciple of Nizamuddin. Shah Wilaayat who is buried in Dhawlkah is also a disciple of Nizamuddin, who sent him especially towards Gujarat.


The majority of the aforementioned saints and pious people remained with this saint and this Shah Wilayat came to Ahmadabad in the period of ZafarKhan. Because they were fellow countrymen, that’s why they gave each other the utmost respect and they also gave him somewhere to stay and served him and he stayed here until his late years and also passed away there.


At the end of Mirat-e-Ahmadi it states:


In the year of 850hijri within 3 years the fortress of Ahmadabad was built, which consisted of 12 doors which are named as follows:

1)     The door of Sahranpur

2)     The door of Kalupur

3)     The door of Aslooriyah, which was between the doors of Band and Rahepur

4)     The door of Khanpur

5)     The door of Raheghar

6)     The door of Khanjahan

7)     The door of Shah pur

8)     The door of Aidriyah, which is also called the Door of Delhi

9)     The door of DaryahPur, which is between The door of Shahpur and the window of Aidriyah

10) The door of Jamalpur

11) The door of Band and

12) The door of Rahepur


Which had the following openings, towards the east where the doors of Saharanpur, Kalupur and the door of Aslooriyah. Towards the west, which is on the edge of the river Saburmatee, the doors of Khanpur, Raheghar and Khanjahan are situated.


The northern doors are Shahpur, Aidriyah and DaryahPur.

The remaining southern doors are Jamalpur, Band and Rahepur.


The author of Mirat-e-Ahmadi Mirza Muhammad Hassan narrates from the author of Haft Aqleem that: The city of Ahmadabad in respect to its grace and population takes precedence over all the other worlds cities. Its buildings are unique compared to other cities. It will not be wrongly put that there is no city in the world that has its glory or greatness.


Its centre compared to other centres is more beautiful and wider, and the males and females are very beautiful, the truth is you will struggle to find a city of similar quality, that is why it is also termed as ‘most beautiful of cities’ and  ‘the prince city’.


It has 17 major intersections, which are:

1)     Chakla bazaar

2)     Pavilia

3)     Mankchok

4)     Dhiku

5)     Lemtree

6)     Bhandri pur

7)     Asdr pur, this is also known as Aparpur

8)     Rahepur

9)     Asloriya

10) Jamalpur

11) Raheghar

12) Khanpur

13) Shah pur

14) Isiriyah

15) Daryahpur

16) Sadrjahan

17) Jawharibara


Here on every intersection there is a terrace upon which there are guards appointed.




There are 450 mosques, and in one narration 500 impressive mosques, whose marble was brought from afar for their construction. The mosques were named after Sultans, princes and even the women of the harem.




Asdarpur, Kalupur, Tajpur, Jamalpur, Esenpur, Betipur, Surpur, Usarwapur, Sameepur, Gayazpur, Sheikhpur, Usmanpur, Shahpur, Qadhipur, Hajepur, Multanpur, Daryapur, Maqsoodpur, Mahpur, Munirpur, Ludipur, Sikanderpur, Ahmadpura, Habatpura, Baklipur, Haripur, Harharpur, Rupur, Kalupur, Rasulpur, Ghalibpur, Sayyad Abad Urf Sarspur, Barspur, Metapur, Jamnapur, Sahibpur, Saleempur, Khempur, Nasirpur, Rasulpur, Parmapur, Sarankpur, Afzalpur, Becanpur, Toganpur, Rajpur, Komtipur, Maryampur, Alimghanjwara, Pur Bahawudin pur, Kanskee wara, Dalalpuree, Ghopalpuree, Muazampur, Manjanpur, Babeepur, Shahganj, Nawapura, Sultanpurm, kishwarpur, Masoompur, Muradganj, Minpur, Bacampur, Rehmatpur, Sayedpur, Changezpur, Kencopur, Kankalpuree, Heerpur, Farkpur, Zorawarpur, Rasulabad, Rolepura, Hamedpura, Usmanpur, Adalpur, Ferozpur, Selabatpur, Sharqpur, Shadmanpur, Amadalpur, Sultanpur, Qasimpur, Fatahpur, Kamaludinpur, Isapur, Rahimpur, Miranpur, Khanpur, Khwanpur, Kutubpur, Hasanpur, Mahmudpur, Sarapur, Irandapur, Arpanapur, Kizarpura.





The making of the city’s four walls


Sultan Mahmood who is also known as Beghra came on to the throne in the year 863/1459A.D. The final part of the ninth century was a peaceful time. Thus in 892/1487 he constructed the four walls of Ahmadabad and he also erected a stone at its entrance which read, ‘Whosoever enters, is in peace’. (That’s why Ahmadabad has also been named Darul-Aman as Abdurahim Khankanan writes)


The author of Asar-e-Rahimi has also praised this city of Gujarat namely Ahmadabad. He writes that: ‘there is no other city in Hindustan that can match its beauty and grace.’


Hakeem Azraqee has even wrote a poem regarding this in Persian


Frishta writes that when Sultan Ahmad Shah reached the province of Asawil in regards to a battle, he really liked the atmosphere there and near the end of 815, under the supervision of Sheikh Ahmad Khatu he laid down the foundation of a city on the edge of the river Sabarmatee, which was named Ahmadabad, which after a few days became populated and became the capital of the King s of Gujrat, with the province Asawil becoming part of its area.  The houses of the rich and Kings were made out of brick and mortar, with the rest of the houses made from mud. The bazaars were so wide and open that 10 vehicles could travel side by side, the shops were solid, and the fortress and Jamea Mosque were also constructed. Outside the city there are 360 areas, and in every one there is a mosque, shopping area and gridlock walls.


It is even mentioned in Khulasat-tawareekh regarding these areas in Persian.



The author of Mirat-e-Ahmadi has written that when the first people occupied Ahmadabad, because they were so few, that’s why every Rich person and Prince fixed a place in a province and this place became famous by the name of that person, e.g. Tajpur and Jamalpur etc. However when the city became fully populated then the city expanded outwards and became very heavily populated. Their total amount was 360, and in one narration 380, and all these were named after wealthy Gujrati’s, who lived therein with the servants etc.


All of these in reality were as small towns, which were complete with all amenities. Thus the author of Mirat-e-Ahmadi has written in praise of these provinces a verse in Persian.



At another stage he writes that every province was like a large town considering their population. The Author of Tazkiratul-Malik writes that in Usmanpur their were at least 12,000 shops just of craftsmen, and prior to troubled times all the provinces were full of businessmen, workers and families, all of which enjoyed a high standard of living in imposing palaces. Later all these were left desolate and after the conquest of Akbar, their populations were considerably changed, just their names remained.


The residents of these provinces


Here follows the names of the residents of some of these provinces:


Kadhipur: Shahpur was an ancient old province. In the time of Alamgir the senior Judge Khwaja Abdullah re-named this anew upon his own name and cultivated it.


Hajipur: Haji Biharudin who also had the title Adadulmalik, who was from the wealthy of Sultan Mahmood Begra populated this and made a mosque here.


Daryapur: This was populated by one of the wealthy of Sultan Mahmood Begra, namely Darya Khan.


Panahpur: Bahadur Khan who was the Chief of the province whose name was Muhammad Panah, he populated this province in the time of Alamghir.


Jahangirpur: was populated on the name of Jahangir.


Haibatpur: Haibat Khan, one of the wealthy of the Sultans of Gujarat populated this.


Bibipur: In the time of the sultans of Gujarat, Mother Bibi who was from the family of Chishti populated this for her own residence and her tomb was made next to the mosque there.


Nurallah pur: Sheikh nur Muhammad whose title was Amanat Khan populated this in the time of Farkh Ser.


Sarangpur: was populated by one the wealthy Sarangs of The Mahmuds.


Afzalpur: Afzal Khan, one of the wealthy of Sultan Mahmood the 2nd populated this.


Toganpur: Togan, one of the wealthy of the Mahmuds populated this.


Manjahnpur: The grandson of Shah Alam, Sayed Masood populated this in the name of his grandfather.


Babeepur: Safdar Khan Babee populated this.


Nawapur, Ghanjpur, Sultanpur: were populated by Sayed Abdurrahim Rifai.

Masumpur: Masum Kuli a.k.a Shujaat Khan populated this anew.


MuradGhanj: This was populated in the time of Prince Murad Bhaksh.


Wahabghanj: in the time of Alamgir, Senior Judge Abdulwahab populated this in his own name.


Sayedpur: Sayed Ataullah of the wealthy of Sultan Ahmad populated this.


Changezpur: The servant of Sultan Mahmud the 2nd, Changez Khan populated this.


Bahadurganj: Sultan Bahadur Gujrati populated this.


Akrampur: Akramuddin the leader of the province populated this in the time of Bahadur Shah.


Mufakirpur: In the same time, the brother of Akramuddin Khan, Abul-mafakir Khan populated this.


Aleempur: Khudawand Khan malak Aleemuddin who was from the wealthy of Sultan Ahmad, he made a mosque there and his place of rest is here also.


Farahpur: This is also known as Kadipur, AbulFarah Khan the Judge of the city populated this in the time of Alamghir, and he erected a house and a beautiful mosque, in which he lived.


Nurganj: In the time when Jahangir was busy in hunting and touring, this was populated in the name of Nurjahan Begum.


Zorawarpur: Jawanmard Khan Babee populated this close to the new Eid prayer venu, in the name of his youngest son.


RasulAbad: was populated by Hazrat Shah Alam and also resided here, His tomb is also situated here.


Pura RadweeKhan: Radwee Khan populated this in the time of Alamghir.


AishAbad: Malak Aish a.k.a Nizamulmalik who was from the wealthy of the Mahmuds populated this between Rasulabad and Batwa. He also made a mosque, lake, garden and tomb within, which was surrounded by solid walls.


Khodanpura: Malak Khodan from the wealthy of Gujarat populated this. Due to a lot of Hazrat Shah Alam’s disciple’s living here, Hazrat kept its name Khuwaidampura.


Kutubpur: This was named after Hazrat Kutub Alam in his time.


Qasimpur: Mirqasim populated this in the time of Alamghir.


Rajupur: The grandsons of Shah Alam populated this.


Khanpur: Sayed Hasan Khan populated this in the time of Alamghir.


Usmanpur: Sayed Usman, a disciple of Kutub Alam populated this.


Norangpur: Norang populated this in the time of Alamghir.


Salayatpur: Salayat Khan populated this.


Shadmanpur: In the time of Akbar, Shadman the son of Azam Khan populated this.


Sheikhpur: The saint of Sultan Mahmud Begra, Sheikh Rahmatullah populated this.



Molana Jinahudin writes that with the start of Ahmad Shah’s time 442/1411, a new era had started, where great architectural feats were accomplished. His capital Ahmadabad was classed as one of those cities which inherited the best examples of architecture. The Jame Mosque of Ahmadabad is classed as the best building of its kind in western Hindustan, but at the same time it portrayed inner desires and hopes. It is as if, the building of these masterpieces is like the opening of flowers, from which your mind freshens and it feels as if, the thoughts and feelings of the architects have elaborated into these structures as if the natural flowing of blood through veins.  The method used to light this mosque is unique and is a lesson. Firstly the rays of light are made to change direction before being made to reflect into the whole mosque The inner sanctuaries of this mosque, its design shows how the problem of lighting is solved. Every single quality of this Architectural masterpiece forces anyone who has any interest in architecture to praise it.  The path which leads from Jame Mosque to the palace of Ahmad Shah consists of three doors, one of which is named Fatah(victory). Today it is surrounded by shops, due to which its splendour cannot be seen, however, the beauty of its Mehrab can still be seen.


The keeper of Gujarat, Sultan Muzaffar Khan, his interest of architecture and buildings is well known. Thus Sultan Hussein Langha sent Khadi Muhammad Oochwee to Gujarat so that he could make drawings of the buildings there. He upon arrival there reported to Ahmad Shah and informed him of his intentions. Ahmad Shah happily approved. In those days Ahmadabad was newly populated. Khadee Muhammad drew plans of all the newly made Palaces and upon return to Multan, displayed those to the Sultan Hussein Langha, at the same time stating that, if all the wealth (tax) of the Multan Kingdom was spent, a single palace like the palace of Ahmadabad could not be built.




The cities that the Sultans of Gujarat populated, their vibrancy, population, free spaces and openness were such that they cannot be matched even today.


Ahmadabad was so large in area that it stretched from SarKheech all the way to MahmudAbad on the other side. In the time of Mahmud the 3rd, shops, houses and trees were erected on the main road of Ahmadabad and Mahmudabad, thus making them into one. At that time the population of Ahmadabad was 2 million. Khanbayat which was a large port town, its population was 800,000 to 1 million. In the same way the populations of Nagarh and Chanpanir had populations of hundreds of thousands.  Ahmadnagar was also classed as a densely populated city of that era. Bharuch also had a large population In the Mughal period the population of Surat was 1,200,000.


The Gujarati Sultans made so many roads, bridges, rest houses, hospitals, motels, pools and orphanages that it is difficult to count them.


Streets: When Sultan Ahmad Abad populated Ahmadabad he made wide roads everywhere.

Frishta writes: The streets of Ahmadabad were so wide that 10 vehicles could go side by side with ease. In the time of Mahmud the 1st a large Road was made linking Patan to Baroda, on the side of which large shady trees were also planted. In the same way, in the time of Mahmud the 3rd a large road was also made between Mahmudabad and Ahmadabad which had shops on both sides. In Chanpanir there was an extravagant palace which was called Dilkasha.

Bahadur Shah often resided in this Palace. Next to this was a very open and imposing building which was called Darbar. The diplomats of other countries met him in this very place. In his time there was another famous palace which was namely Sangarmandip.

Mahmud the 3rd erected a 2 mile lodge in Mahmudabad.  He made different types of palaces and out house buildings within that. In that same era DaryaKhan erected an impressive dome in Ahmadabad. This was a unique building within the whole of Gujarat and Khatyawar. Until this time all previous buildings in Gujarat where of a Chinese design and erected on Stone pillars. But this building was designed principally on an Arab-Iranian design and made with solid bricks. Because this was a new method deployed in Gujarat, that’s why its dome became very famous.

In certain areas, the buildings that were erected where unique in their stature and beauty, such as the Jame mosques of Manglore, Khanbayat, Bharuch and Ahmadabad, the moving pillars, in many of the old mosques of Ahmadabad there were only 2 minarets, their speciality was that if one minaret moved, the other would also move (many an English engineer tried to work out how they were linked but could not), the mosque of JutKhaki, the mosque of Jali, the mosque of Ranisapri, are some of the best examples of Ahmadabad’s architecture.

In the place of Sima, from the district of Patan, a mosque was made which had a compartment for all of the twelve constellations, so that the moon could be spotted from its constellation in every month. This mosque remained until the time of Alamghir. The gardens erected by Shah Jahan next to the royal palace on the bank of the river were also a masterpiece. In Ahmadabad itself 500 mosques of stone were erected. ShahJahan remained as governor in Ahmadabad for quite a time. He became interested in architecture just by seeing the buildings here. It is out of that interest that Taj Mahal became a world famous masterpiece, and he also made a royal palace and gardens next to the river bank here


The mosque of 98 Domes


Sultan Ahmad made a magnificent mosque close to MankChok in 817/1414, which apart from melancholy had 352 pillars. 12 at the melancholy entrance, 8 at the end, and to the North and south sides they were 212 pillars. And apart from further pillars there were 98 domes.


The Jame mosque of Ahmadabad


Jahanghir writes in his memoirs:

On the 26th of May 1026/1617 on the Tuesday, I went to see the mosque which is in the centre. From the poor people that were there I gave charity of approximately 500 rupees by my own hands. This mosque was erected by the person who made this city Ahmadabad namely Sultan Ahmad, which has 3 doors, every door faces a Bazaar, and the door that faces the east is where the Tomb of Sultan Ahmad is. Under its dome Sultan Ahmad, his son Muhammad and grandson Kutbudin have been laid to rest. Apart from this the length of the veranda of the mosque is 103 yards by 89 yards. On either side of the veranda there are hallways which are 5 and a quarter yards in width, the flooring of the veranda is made of cut stones and the pillars of the hallway is of red brick. The hall consists of 354 pillars. Above these pillars the dome is situated. The size of this hall is 75 feet by 37. The floor, Mehrab and Minbar of this hall are made of marble. At the front on either side there are two round minarets from cut stone, which are spread on 3 sitting areas. This cut stone has beautiful ornamentation done. On the right side, in front of the mimbar, in the corner of the hall is the Royal seating area, between the pillars of which stony slabs have been erected, and around the Royal seating area until the ceiling stony curtains are present. The purpose of this construction was that when the King came to pray Juma or Eid prayer, at the mosque he, his advisors and entourage would make their prayers on the highest seating (also known as the Kings hall). It is also possible that this was done from a security point of view so that the King would be protected from the normal rush of people.

According to the author of Mirat-e-Ahmadi, Ali Muhammad Khan in just Ahmadabad alone there were 500 stone mosques.

In regards to tombs, the tomb of Sheikh Ahmad Khuti, to this day is a remarkable feat in the eyes of experts.

According to Emperor Jahanghir, 500,000 rupees was spent just on the construction of this tomb alone. Apart from Shah Alam’s tomb, the tomb of Darya Khan is unique of all buildings in Gujarat. In Sarkheej the marble work done on the tomb of Mahmud the 1st is absolutely fantastic in relation to its quality and craftsmanship. The marble built Mehrab on the seating of the Jame Mosque in Ahmadabad is something to see. In every mosque the sundial that has been put next to the Main prayer mat is unique in its design and build.  In those days the sundial shape was a lot less on the tombs and the shape of a lamp was used a lot more, made of marble. It is unique also in its design.



The buildings of Sayed Meerahn


Jahanghir writes in his memoirs: I went fishing on the river MahmudAbad. On the shore of River Mahmudabad there is the tomb of Sayed Mubarak Gujarati who was from the wealthiest of Gujarat, and after him his son Sayed Meerahn made this building. It has a very large and magnificent dome. Around it are four solid walls of Stone and Lime. It is estimated that 200,000 rupees would have been spent on its construction. The tombs of the Sultans of Gujarat which have come before my eyes cannot even reach a tenth of this one.




The Sultan Mahmood Beghra made different types of gardens.  Some were just of fruits, others of flowers, some just of plants. He planted plentiful trees of mangos, pomegranates, coconuts, jamboline. He planted many gardens in Muhamadabad, from which the mangos where of a high quality. They were many plantations of pomegranates, figs, grapes, apples, bananas, oranges, coconuts, all of which were of a high quality.




A worker of Sultan Mahmud made a Khurasani style garden for the Sultan. The sultan named that Garden of Bhalu, even though this Garden is not present today, the place is still present between Chanpanir and Ghodhra.


After this gardening became very popular in Gujarat and the rich started gardening also. In the heart of Ahmadabad Sultan Mahmud made a magnificent garden which was five miles long and 1 mile wide, it was called Garden of Firdaus.


 It is written in Mirat-e-Ahmadi that people say that it consisted of 900,000 trees. That’s why this garden was also known as Nolakhi Garden. It had a lot of Mango trees.

In some history books it is written that from Patan until Baroda there were many hundreds of thousands of Mango trees on the side of the road. That’s why the best and most Khirni in the whole of Hindustan are found in Gujarat. Muhamad Qasim Farishta has also quoted this in his book Tibe-Farishta.


Because of all these trees the weather in Ahmadabad was very fresh and cool. Thus Sultan Mahmood used to spend the hot season in Ahmadabad, the winter in Jonargh and the wet season in Chanpanir.


Aleemudin Khudawand Khan was the first person who bought the fig tree from Dakkan and planted it in Gujarat, which then took off in the whole of the country. In one area of Ahmadabad namely Esenpur, the gardens of this area and its fruits of mango were very delicious. The Gulmangura of this garden was very famous. From Batwa to Esenpur and from Esenpur to Rasulabad on both sides of the road they were such mango filled shading trees that in its shade, a traveller felt as if he was in paradise.


Sultan Kutbuddin planted a very simple garden in the middle of Lake Nakariyah, which was called Naginabari. It was a very beautiful place. On the south of this lake he was planting a further garden when he passed away. Unfortunately this garden stayed incomplete and it was called Moghra Garden.

In the time of Mahmud the 3rd the Lodge that was made in Mahmudabad, next to this was a very large garden/park. Consistently the branches of its trees were filled with colourful cloth and in the autumn season its branches were decorated with artificial flowers.


After seeing the interest in gardens by the Sultans, other rich and wealthy also became interested and they planted many gardens, which remained until the end of the Moghul times. Thus the gardens of Hiree, Rustum, Gulab, Taut, Badar, shahee, Karez, Haweli, Shahbari, Chanpaneer, Fatah and irm were as a direct result of this interest.

It is mentioned in Kokab Falak which is written piece from the time of Sultan Muzaffar the 4th and Akbar that in Keronj there were 500,000 mango trees.

This interest also passed from the rich and wealthy into the poor. Thus one old poor lady also made a garden, which had a lack of water, and by the order of the king a well was dug for it.


Attractive Gardens


The author of Mirat-e-Ahmadi narrates from the author of Tazkiratul-Malook that in Usmanpura alone there were 12,000 shops of craftsmen. There were many Gardens surrounding the city, which had different types of Fruits and plants, flowers, beautiful architecture, large fountains and flowing streams, surrounded on all four sides by beautiful trees.


A very beautiful garden, the garden of Nagena, this was made in the middle of the lake, the lake of Kankarya, which had the length of 750 feet. The reason why this lake was called Kankarya is that Shah Alam R.A. who was firstly married to Sultan Mahmud Begra’s Aunt Markee. After the death of Madam Markee Shah Alam got married to Madam Markee’s sister Madam Mughlee, (Sultan Mahmud Begra was an orphan at this time) and in this way he was able to bring up and educate Sultan Mahmud Begra directly.

In short when Hazrat Shah Alam reached the lake at the time of its digging out his foot was stung by a stone upon which he exclaimed: ‘what type of stone is this?’ (khankar is the name for stone in Gujarati) from this the lake was famously known as Lake Kankarya.


In one narrative it is mentioned that when the Sultan asked Hazrat that where this digging should occur, Hazrat threw a stone to mark the place. This is why it was called Lake Kankarya. It was the intention of Sultan Mahmud to make gardens surrounding the lake on all four sides. That’s why he started plantation on the south side, which is also known as Lake Moghra, however it remained incomplete.


In the same way the ‘Shahbari’ of Ahmadabad is very famous which was made on the shore of Saburmutee on 62 acres of land. The 50 acres outside this garden were also in connection with this garden.


Another one of Sultan Mahmud Begra’s gardens was in the area of Haweli at Katrar, in which Sultan Mahmud planted 900,000 flower trees amongst other things, that’s why this garden was named NoLakh.

In the same way the Garden of Shugban which was made by the servant of Sultan Muhamad son of Sultan Ahmad, was a very magnificent garden, which was situated in Rakhyal.

The garden of the trees of Haleela, this was also at Rakhyal.

In the same way the Garden of Rustum situated on the shore of Saburmutee, planted by Rustum Khan was a very famous garden and covered 60 acres.

Close to Rustum Gardens, The garden of Gulab and Taut were famous which was made for the Roses and its water.

In the Vicinity of Parghana: were the Royal Gardens which were made on 150 acres of land. This garden was made in Royal Maqsurpur which was a rural area of Parghana Haweli and on the shores of Saburmutee, which was made by the viziers on the order of Shahjahan. 100 ox and 70 gardeners were appointed just to water it as well as, workers to clean, guards, overseers and accountants.

Farman Bari: there was also a garden by the name of Farman Bari on the west side of Saburmutee.

Fatah Bag: when Mirza Abdurahim Khankanan became victorious over the ruler of Dakkan Sultan Muzaffar Hussain he made a garden named Fatah Bag in Sarkeej to celebrate.

Jeet Bag: Saif Khan became victorious over Abdullah Khan Firoz so on that place in the name of Jeet bag he planted a garden at the place of Jeetulpur, in which they especially made Bawli, which then became famous with the mane of Dahari Bawli.


The garden of Fatah:


Jahanghir writes in his memoirs:

The garden which Khankanan planted on the battle field was situated on the shore of the River Saburmutee. In that garden he made a beautiful terrace next to a magnificent building.  Surrounding the garden were strong walls made of Lime and Stone. The area of this garden is 120 Jareebs. And without a doubt it is a beautiful place to stroll. It is possible that 200,000 rupees would have been spent in its making. I really liked this Garden. It can be said that in all of the state of Gujarat there will not be a garden like this. I spent the blessed night of Thursday there and came back to the city on Friday. On the Thursday 22nd of Bahman 1026/1617 I came to the Garden of Fatah for a stroll of the Rose Garden within. All the roses were in full bloom. In this country it is difficult to find Roses and to see so many flowers in one place at once is surely a blessing. The tulip’s bloom was also very nice. The fig trees of the garden were filled with ripe figs. I broke a few figs with my hands and I went to weigh the largest and it came to 7 and a half pounds.




A stroll in the Garden of Sikanderee:


Jahanghir writes in his memoirs:

On the 28th day of dhay 1026/1617A.D. on a Thursday I went for a stroll in Rustum Khan Bhari. Bhari is a term used for Garden in Hindi. This garden was planted by my brother Shah Murad in the name of his son Rustum Khan. At the end of the day I went into Sheikh Sikander’s garden which is in his compound and close to Rustum Bhari. The figs were very ripe. I broke them with my hands and ate well. Breaking fruits by your hands and eating them is so much more satisfying.

I had not broken figs with my own hands and eaten them until today. Other than this I also wanted to meet the honoured Sheikh Sikander so I entered this garden without any apprehension. Sheikh SIkander is originally a Gujarati and is very intellectual and he is very well aware of the states of the Sultans of Gujarat. He has been in the circles of the wealthy of the realm for upto 8-9 years.

Because Shahjahan Farzand appointed one of his best persons Rustum Khan as the Governor of Ahmadabad, therefore I upon the intercession of Farzand granted the Garden of Rustum to Rustum


The cultivation of Roses:


The vast amount of cultivation of flowers and gardens can be estimated by the following incident: That rose syrup was what a doctor prescribed as the cure for a Particular Saint’s troubles. When the Sultan of Gujarat found out, he sent 12 ox driven carts filled of rose syrup for the intention of this saint with a message that: ‘I am sorry, due to my travels at this stage I am only able to send this much to you.’ The question arises that why does such a large amount of Rose syrup remain with the Sultan whilst he is travelling. Historians have answered this by stating that, in fact, this syrup was converted into drink for the Sultan and that is why such large amounts of Roses remained with him.


Staying on the shore of Lake Kakarya:


Jahanghir writes in his memoirs:


On the 22nd of Daye 1026/1617, on Saturday, I stayed on the shore of Lake Kakarya. This man made lake was dug by the grandson of the maker of the city of Ahmadabad (Sultan Ahmad) namely Qutbuddin Muhammad.  Solid Steps made of Stone and Lime was built around it, and in the middle of the Lake, a simple Garden and House was built. A bridge was constructed from the edge of the Lake to the House on this Island for access. Because such a long time has passed since its construction, the building itself is in ruins, and there is not space enough for a person to sit. At the time when I decided to come to Ahmadabad, Bakshi Safi Khan of Gujarat, using Royal income re-constructed this to its former glory and cleaned out the garden.  In the same way he breathed new life into this building and the garden.  Without a doubt, this abode is very relaxing and beautiful, I loved its position.  In the area where the Bridge is situated, Nizamuddin Ahmad who for a while was the Bakshi of Gujarat in my fathers time, created a garden on the shore of this Lake.



How was this Lake?


It is written that this Lake Qutub is situated 1 and one third mile away from the Door of Rahepur. Its area size is 72 acres. It runs for more than a mile. It has 22 inlets. It is situated to 190 places. Sultan Qutbuddin completed this in 855/1151. It has Stone steps on all four of its sides. It has 6 entrances which are covered by domes. In the middle used to be an Island, which was joined to the land with a bridge consisting of 38 arches. There was also a Garden that was called The garden of Nagina, in front of which there was a mansion, which was called Ghatamandil, Sultan Qutbuddin used to spend the winter season in this mansion himself. In the middle of this lake was also a small pool, which had a fountain within. On the northern side there was a room, (which probably was for piping) for the reason to ensure that the lake did not dry up in the warmest season, an 11 mile long stream/river was constructed and this lake was joined to a further river.


Jahanghir states in his memoirs:


On Sunday, the 23rd of Rajab 1017/1608 I went to Hakim Ali’s house to see a pool. My close friends who had not seen this pool before were also with me. A pool similar to this was also made in Lahore in the time of Hazrat Arsh Ashiyani. This pool was 6 yards by 6. Next to the pool there is a house, which is very bright. This house is constructed in direct route of the water; however it is strange that because of this water does not enter this house. Ten to twelve people could easily sit in this house. The Hakim offered gifts of Naqd and Jins items which he had with him. After observing this house, and after all of my companions entered this house I gave the Hakim a posting/position of 2000 and returned to my palace.




The Factories in Ahmadabad, Gujarat are also very famous, it is written that:


At the start of the ninth century, the capital of Gujarat, Ahmadabad was populated. In the period of 50 years this city became so far advanced that no other city in Hindustan was considered as a competitor to it. Sultan Mahmud Beghra was personally involved in its advancement. Every type of highly qualified personnel was got together in his era. Looking back through history, it can be deduced that there were paper factories here from this period, and slowly this advanced to such a stage that large factories in this industry were constructed in Patan and Khanbayat.  The paper of Patan is even named Patni. The trademarks of Ahmadabad’s paper are its whiteness and smoothness.

It is written in Mirat-e-Ahmadi:

In the paper industry, even though the paper from DolatAbad and Kashmir are of very high quality, however it cannot match the whiteness and gleam of the paper of Ahmadabad and they are also made in different types.




The effect of its Blessed Name:


The effect of its blessed name could be seen in every dimension. There were great saints here, understanding and knowledge, philosophers, worldly educated persons, and great inventors and craftsmen. In regards to the cloth industry a 3rd century Arab businessman Suleman writes that: ‘No where has as good cloth as this country. The cotton here is of such a high quality and so fine that you could easily put it in the circle of your thumb.’

He also writes: ‘I have not seen cloth like this anywhere else.’

It is written in Mirat-e-Ahmadi:


In the reign of Mahmud Shah the first the work of Velvet, Kusti and Embroidery was of the highest quality and the names of these people were famous in places like Iran, Tehran, Rome and Syria.


It is written in Kulasatu-tawareekh that the Lace works, embroidery, velvet, flint and brocade in Ahmadabad was made very well. They followed the lead of the Romans, Europeans and Iranians. The Qusti was of a very high standard. People used to take this as a gift.


The workers and experts here made such an expensive Canopy of velvet and brocade in the time of Shahjahan, that it cost 100,000 rupees to completion.

These workers were such experts in their field, that the Raja of Jaipur, Jai Singh who wanted Jaipur to be like an Ahmadabad, gave many gifts to get these workers from Ahmadabad.

These expert designers of Gujarat where such that there designs and works were famous all over the world.

It is the saying of Bar Bosa that the silk cloth of Gujarat goes as far as to eastern Africa and Peku. According to Watma the cloth of Gujarat used to be exported to Persia, Tatar, Syria, Tabrez, Arabia and Abbysinia.


It is also written that: in the Royal Palace hall, celebrations were ordered for the new era and a great party was being prepared. By the wishes of the King a large canopy of Brocade and Velvet was erected on the Golden and silver pillars in front of the Main celebration pillar, which was embroidered with a frilly material. This canopy was prepared at an expense of 100,000 and prepared by the designers of Gujarat. The whole of the open area at the front was ordained with Studded and colourful cloth and seemed like a beautiful garden. Underneath the Canopy a Terrace was erected, which had laced carved stone on all four sides. This studded terrace and platform was placed directly in the middle. The walls, sides, ceiling even the lodge and Mehrab of the entrance were ordained with velvet, Iranian brocade, fine embroidery and Roman Silk, it seemed as if the whole of the house was as a beautifully decorated gardens. The comforts for each of the areas were delegated to named Wealthy people and Princes. Apart from this in this heavenly palace of Muzaffar, there were studded golden plates which highlighted even further this occasion.

It is written in Regards to this completed canopy:

On the 2nd of April 1635 Shah Jahan saw the velvety, brocade canopy which the Governor of Gujarat Sapedar Khan had sent, at the cost of 84,000 rupees. The pillars were of silver and were guilded with gold. On the 9th of April 1635 a jubilee was celebrated on the coming of Aftaab. The walls and floor of the palace were glittering so much with the diamonds and Gold decorative items that you could not see the glare of the sun. Shahjahan showed so much generosity at this occasion that Abarneesah was ashamed.

It is written in Shah Jahan’s diary that on the 9th of Rabiul-thani 1063 (9-Mar-1653) a festival was held to celebrate his 64th lunar birthday. The officials put out a 96 foot by 38 foot cloth of Velvet and brocade, which the designers and experts of the factories of Gujarat made at the cost of 80,000 rupees. This was stood upon 44 silver pillars which were peaked with gold.

Its collective weight was 420,000 Tolas. In the royal palace the coloured flooring was put out with such delicacy that it was a sight to behold.

It is written under the title of the festival of Tulawan:

The festival of Tulawan was held on the 1st of Rabiul-thani 1064 On a Thursday, The veranda of the royal palace glittered with the coloured flooring and seemed like paradise. The Experts of Gujarat at the cost of 100,000 rupees had prepared the cloth, of which the embroidery was dazzling. The 44 pillars of silver peaked with gold where supporting this, its total weight was127 man, 32 ser and 20 tolas. There was a silver cage surrounding this. The inner and outer walls of the palace where wrapped in silk from china and velvet. In the Mehrab of the Palace where silvery chains which had gold balls hanging from them. The jewels resting upon these Pillars and seeing the studded canopy was a beautiful sight. There were chairs and seating of gold. The gold studded cloth, laced with jewels increased the glory. The 2nd Shahjahan sat on the throne and started giving out gold.


In regards to the Festival of ishrat it is written in the history of Shahjahan:



Then came the time of the decoration for the main palace hall. This palace was adorned and decorated colourfully with the rare items of various countries. Beautiful embroidered velvet from China, Rome and Europe where draped in the rooms and walkways. A black beautiful royal Canopy, which was 22 foot high, covered four silvery pillars.  Its length was 70 yards by 45, made in Ahmadabad after a full years work. It cost 100,000 rupees to make. It was breathtakingly colourful and high.  It covered on area 3200 foot squared, under which 1000 men could sit. 3000 striking seats were present within.  Surrounding it was a canopy of brocade and velvet upon golden poles showing off the spring. On all four sides was beautiful carved silver. Beneath the skies were beautiful large canopies from brocade, velvet and Gujarati and Iranian silk with threads of silver upon the pillars, there were studded cloth upon which were laced jewels,  hanging of them beads of pearls, it is as if the milky way stars or the Pleiades have appeared. At every little junction studded and embroidered seating. In the middle of this beautiful and magnificent palace was such seating which had a golden cage surrounding it.  Upon this was the throne of the King which with the quantity of rubies, emeralds, Jewels and gems was the envy of the universe. Eyes started to squint due to the shine and brightness of the jewels. It seemed an example of the greatest throne. The canopy was held up by 4 golden pillars, which were topped with expensive jewels.


Shipping Industry


The shipping industry and its factories where situated at Gog Khanbayat and Surat. The cannon industry was also of a very high standard.  The weaponry namely the ships and cannons that were built at the time of Mahmud the 3rd in preparation to take back the Island of Dyu from the Portugese were built especially in Gujarat.


The Royal Cannon of Bahadur Shah


From the Sultans of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah had a great love for Cannons. He had collected together all types of cannons, and he also made such cannons that until then no one in Hindustan had seen its like. Rumi Khan Turkee, an expert was the head of Bahadur Shah’s Cannons. He bought Laila, Majnun and other Suleimani and Egyptian Cannons himself when he came. A Cannon was made in Gujarat in the name of Bahadur Shah. Prior to the coming of The founder of the Moghul Empire, King Babar to Hindustan and prior to the Battle of Panipat, they where high standards of Cannon artillery present in various Districts of Hindustan, and the most advanced in this area was Gujarat.


Gun Industry


The Bandooq also entered firstly through Gujarat through Yemen. Thus, in the latter stage of Muzaffar Khan’s era, there where 12,000 rifle men in the army.




Molana Abu Zaffar writes: it is worth remembering and noting that the sword made in Gujarat is the most valuable, because apart from the climate, the water of a specific well here was very beneficial for the polish of the sword. The weapons of Sarohi are very famous even today, which is part of the eastern mountainous area of Gujarat is.


The Madaris of Ahmadabad


Of all the Sultan’s of Gujarat, no greater King than Sultan Mahmud Beghra has passed.  His reign was from 863/ until 917 and his court where always filled with scholars and wise people. Large buildings were constructed in his period. From these were the Madaris. The historian, author of Mirat-e-Ahmadi writes that this King constructed resthouses for the travellers, Madrassahs for the Student, and Mosques for the Muslims.




The Madrassah of Saif Khan


The author of Mirat-e-Ahmadi writes that, the governor of Gujarat Muhammad Safi also known as Saif Khan, built a magnificent and beautiful Madrassah at the gate of the fortress of Irak in Ahmadabad. The name of this Madrassah was Madrasatul-Ulama.


Sheikul-Islam  Madrassah


Kazi Ikramuddin Khan also known as Sheikh-ul-islam built a magnificent Madrassah in Ahmadabad at his own expense. 124,000 rupees were spent in its making. Construction started in 1102 and it was completed in 1111. Apart from the shops in front, 2 villages were also in Waqf for it. A famous teacher of this mosque is Molana Nuruddin Gujarati.


Madrassah Sar Khez


There is a very large Madrassah in SarKhez where Sheikh Ahmad Khatu’s tomb is also situated. The buildings of this tomb were constructed by Muhammad Shah. It seems that the Madrassah Buildings were also constructed in the time of Mahmud Shah and Muzaffar Shah. The great jurist Ahsanal-Arab Ad-dabawli had a unique position from the teachers of this Madrassah.


Madrassah Wajeehuddin


The Madrassah of the Scholar Wajeehuddin is the most famous Madrassah in Ahmadabad. Students also received grants in this Madrassah. Allama Mamdooh taught here for approximately 65 years, and was even buried here after death. After him, his son Rashid Molana Abdullah became in charge. A wealthy man, Sadiq Khan reconstructed this Madrassah anew, which had boarding for the students and also had a student grant system.


Madrassah Usmanpur


On the shores of Sabur was a village, which was named after Usman who died in 863, who also populated this. Sheikh Usman also made a mosque there. Muhammad Shah Gujarati had a great Link with the Sheikh. The Sheikh took various benefits in lieu of this Link with the Shah, for example, he was able to get as a donation for the students all the books from the Royal Library.


It can also be known from Mirat-e-Ahmadi that Alamghir sent a proclamation to the Governor of Gujarat Makramat Khan, in which he ordered that, Madrassahs should be set up in all areas of the Empire. Education should be given to the students from Meezan to Kasshaf and the students should receive bursaries from the treasury as well as an amount for the teachers fixed from the treasury. Thus as a direct result from this, three Madrassahs were appointed, one in Ahmadabad, one in Surat and the third in Patan. From this book we can also prove that in 1087, for the purpose of reconstruction, rupees were given for the madrassahs, Mosques and hospitals in the fortress of Badhar, Ahmadabad.


The Madrassah of Waliyullah


The mosque which is present today in Ahmadabad next to Teeliyah Mill, is in fact the remainder of this Madrassah. Here their used to be a very large Madrassah. Because Ahmad son of Suleiman was an expert in the fields of Philosophy, logic, Mathematics and astronomy his students also became experts in these fields. Due to this, the teachings of these subjects were of a very high standard in this madrassah.

Molana Emaduddin of present (1155/1742), Molana Nuruddin and Molana Waliyullah were great teachers and supervisor here. Next to this was also a large library. Unfortunately this Madrassah was destroyed in the riots of the Meerhuts. Then on a smaller scale within the heart of the city, in this mosque of Kalipur, which today is called the Mosque of Waliyullah a Madrassah was built. This has also now been closed.




In Ahmadabad, a Madrassah of the name of Darul-Irshad was also established, which taught religious knowledge. When was this established? Who established it? When did it close? We do not know.  We only know that it was present in the year 1112/1700. It also had a Library. A book from this Library namely ‘Makazinul-Maruf’ is still present today in the Library of Kaze Nuruddin in Bharuch. This is the place where I have acquired my information from.


Technical Education


These types of Madrassah’s were aplenty also in Ahmadabad, but its features were very different then the Technical colleges of today. The method was that a factory would be opened, workers would work there and at the same time students would also be taught. There also were illiterate students but in this field their marks would be better than educated students. The students that graduated from these factories would more than likely be employed by the same factory and would do so well that outsiders would be astonished by their inventions. Usually the boys of Business men and General workers would enter here as an apprentice and study very hard.


In the same way they were many Madrassahs which educated in Engineering, Music and other fields, in which Hindus and Muslims would Study without any hindrance, and after studying would shine as a Star of Gujarat in the sky. In 890/1145 Genishia was an expert engineer of this period, just as Ishru was in the 11th century a great poet of his time.


Educational Institutes and Libraries


When self rule came into Gujarat, then all types of Knowledge and educational experts came together in to the Court of Sultan Ahmad (846), and by their guidance he started the construction and appointment of Madrassahs, Mosques, Travel Inns and other public bodies. One of these was the Library. The way this Library is mentioned in History books is that after his passing his son Muhammad Shah took out the books from the royal library and donated them for reading to the students of Madrassah Shama Burhanee. This Library remained until 980.


When Akbar conquered Gujarat he distributed some of its books. Some of these books came to Sheikh Abdul-haq Muhaddis and some to Abdul Qadir and also to Faizi, the rest were included into the Royal Library.


The Library of Usmanpura


Sheikh Muhammad Usman also known as Sheikh Burhani, disciple of Kutb-e-Alam(857) was a very pious saint. He populated a village on the other side of the River Saburmutee and named it Usman pura. He via Sultan Muhammad Shah built a mosque and madrassah which was called Madrassah Sham-e-Burhani. There was a Library also with this Madrassah, which had the books donated from the royal library as well as others. He was in charge of this himself until 803. Even after him these things remained for a long time, however they were destroyed in the onslaught and rioting of the Marhuts. Now only the mosque and the tomb remain.


The Library of Khanqa Sarkez


Hazrat Sheikh Ahmad Khatwee (845) made a Khanqa, pool and mosque in Ahmadabad himself. After him Sultan Muhammad Shah Gujratee also made a tomb and Madrassah. It is assumed that there would definitely been a Library with this Madrassah, and further by the following it shows that Sheikh Ahmad kept his own personal Library within the Khanqa, because at one occasion he took the book of Masaabeeh out from his personal Library and quoted a hadeeth to someone present, who then wrote a poem praising him.


The Library of Shah Alam


The famous saint of Gujarat Sayyed Muhammad Shah Alam was a practicing scholar. He had a great interest in studying. Due to excessive studying he had marks in both his hands from resting upon them. He had a very large Library, which had very rare books too. Thus when Molana Sadr Jahan came to meet him, he showed Molana such a rare book of Imam Razi that even Molana Sadr Jahan was not aware of it.

His successors also kept adding to it. This Library was at its peak in the time of Sayyed Jafar Badar Alam (1078). He wrote many books himself and included them into the Library.  One day in the evening someone asked him for A copy of the Quraan. He replied I will go into the Library and get you a copy. The person said: ‘why do you not give me the one in your possession?’ He always kept a Quraan with him and reluctantly handed that to him. At the time of the looting and rioting of the Marhats, his children went within the confines of the city wall, due to which the Library was not protected fully. As a result of this the Library slowly ebbed away, however even today some remaining books are still in the possession of his generation.


The Library of Shah Jahan


In the time of the King Shah Jahan (1062) the keeper of this Library was Sayyed Ali Ibne Sayyed Jalal for a short while. Maqsood Alim bin Sayyed was a prominent respected scholar. He was born in Ahmadabad, Gujarat and got this post at the intercession of his brother Sayyed Jafar Badar Alam. His lineage meets the Famous Bukhari Family’s Progenitor Hazrat Shah Alam. He was a very able and knowledgeable person.  From the time of Aurangzeb Alamghir until the time of Muhammad Shah the Royal Library remained in its original condition.


The Library of Madrassah Hidayat Baksh


In Ahmadabad Molana Sheikh Nuruddin was a pious, virtuous Sufi, who obtained his knowledge of Philosophy, logic, maths from Molana Ahmad bin Suleman (1077), who was the real brother of Makhdoom Sheikh Ibrahim bin Suleman. Sheikul-islam constructed a madrassah named Hidayat Baksh for him. 124,000 rupees was spent in its construction. In the year of 1101 the building of the madrassah, the mosque and boarding was completed. Next to it was also a large Library which had books of all subjects. This Library was also for the general public use. Unfortunately this Library was destroyed in the Marhata rioting. Many of its books are present in the Library of Hazrat Pir Muhammad Shah Hedarabad and the mosque is still present by the looking after of local people.


The Libray of Madrassah Waliyullah


The Mosque in Ahmadabad which is next to Tilya mill, next to that used to be a very large Madrassah. Molana Bahauddin was in charge of this in 1155. Next to that was a very large Library which had books from nearly every field and subject, and also chosen books in many subjects. This Madrassah and Library were also damaged in the Marhata riots. When this family lost its interest in knowledge they stopped looking after the Library. Thus the family gave many books to interested parties and the rest of the books were eventually finished by insects. In this way the whole library was dispersed. It can be assumed from the rest of the books which did remain that this Library was very Large and included a wealth of rare books, because even today after the looting of this Library many rare books are still present, and further, have been donated to the Library of Hazrat Muhammad Shah.



The Library of Shia Boharun


Ahmadabad remained until the middle of the 11th century the centre of the Shia Ismaili Boharis. Their main spiritual leader lived here, and many of their mosques were also established here. There was a magnificent library also under the supervision of this Leader which had books from any subject. After 1065 this Library was transferred to Jaminigar. This Library today is in good condition under the supervision of Sayyedana Tahir Saifuddin in Surat. Specific Scholars of the nation are able to benefit from it. At the end of the 10th century another Library was established by the Sulemani Bohars which mainly constituted of religious books. This library is still present today with their leader.


The Library of Ahmadabad’s centre of Justice


In Islamic times the status of the Senior Judge of Ahmadabad was very high. He would also be in charge of all the other judges in the district. That’s why he had to have a Library. Thus the Senior Judge of Ahmadabad also possessed a Library which has continued with the Courts in Islamic times. But because of lack of education a lot of this Library has been lost. I have heard now however that concerns have arisen regarding the Library’s welfare and the books have been taken out of boxes and placed on shelves.


The Library of Sheikh Hadhrami


 In Ahmadabad Sheikh Abdul-Qadir Hadhrami (1038) was a famous saint. One of his works Annurus-safir fee Ayanul-qarnil-Ashir is a very famous book. I feel that the street that goes to the east of Soul Hospital, at its end, in the district of Johari Bara is his tomb. He had a vast Library but now nothing remains apart from his tomb. Sheikh Abdul-Qadir was a great historian, Muhadith and saint. That is why his Library would mainly have consisted of history, Hadeeth and Sufism books.


The Library of Itimad Khan Gujarati


This was also a top Library in Gujarat, which consisted of very rare and amazing books. This Library remained until Akbar’s conquering of Gujarat. Akbar after taking control of this Library included some of its books in his own Royal Library and distributed the rest amongst the scholars. Mullah Abdul-Qader Badayawani writes that: ‘An edition of Anwaarul Mishkat came into his control.

After Gujarat came under the control of the Mughal Empire remained a focus of Moghal intentions. By Alamghir naming this as the beauty of Hindustan stipulates that the State of Gujarat from the time of Akbar to Alamghir’s time had advanced considerably in education, crafts and inventions.

 But whatever Social, scientific and General knowledge was gathered in the Muslim period, a very large amount of it was destroyed by the Destruction of the Marhats. Even though some of the remaining books from the Libraries of Gujarat, are safe in the houses of Sufis, Kazees, and scholars in Ahmadabad, Bharuch and Kanbayat. It is also written that some of the books are also safe with Peer Muhammad Shah.


The Library of Kazee Burhanuddin.


It is a shame that I cannot find mention of this Library anywhere, even though the Qazee by the mouth of the author earned his livelihood in benefiting others, and knowledge spread throughout Gujarat because of him. Therefore it can be said he had a very established Library.

In the same way we are in the dark in regards to the libraries of other Sheikhs and prominent scholars such as Molana Rajeh bin daud (904/1498), Kazee Jagan (920), Molana Ala-u-ddin (949) Molana Abdul-malik (970), Sheikh Hassan Muhammad (982), Kutbuddin (999), Molana Ahmad Kardee (1087), Sayyed Muhammad Rizwi (1111), even though these were very prominent jurists, authors and scholars, upon which Hindustan will always be proud.


The Library of Madrassah Sheik-ul-Islam


This was a unique Library because it was not only made for the use of the students of the Madrassah, rather anyone with interest was able to benefit from it. This Madrassah was constructed by Qazee Ikramuddin a.k.a. Sheik-ul-islam in Ahmadabad at a cost of 124,000 rupees, and its construction was completed in 9 years (1102-1111). It is said that this madrassah was constructed for Molana Nuruddin who spent his life in the pursuit of knowledge and after allama Wajeehuddin, there was no one in Gujarat who was as big a scholar as him, in respect of written pieces and teaching. He passed away in 1155/1742 and was buried in this madrassah.


Some other Libraries


It is written about Molana Sheerani that he decided to do a tour of Tayawaar in Gujarat. Because in the summer holidays there are terrific rains in Gujarat he took leave for the two weeks of 16 September- to the 30th of September and went to Gujarat. In his travels he saw some of the Libraries of Ahmadabad, Baroda, Bombay and Jaipur.

In Ahmadabad he saw the libraries of Peer Muhammad Shah, Sayeds Kutub Khana, Sayed Jaluluddin Mashadi and Husaini Peer. Some people such as the Judge of Ahmadabad had a very good collection but he refused to show these.

In Bombay he saw the Libraries of Muhammadiyah School and Professor Najib Ashraf. In Baroda he saw the Library of Jame Mosque but there were only printed books there. In Jaipur, He was lucky enough to see a part of the Library of the circles of Mehdweeyo.  This book was brought to the Capital in conjunction with a case. From these books, he saw the books written in Gojri and Rajisthani Urdu. From this he was able to gain quite a bit of information into the Mehdweeyo’s contribution to Urdu Grammar.


The Library of Waliyullah


The Madrassah that was constructed under the supervision of Molana Emaduddin had a very large and vast library, which had books from nearly every single subject. Some were very rare indeed. The Library and Madrassah were severely damaged by the onslaught of the Marhats. Slowly over time, Molana Emaduddin’s family lost its interest in knowledge, which resulted in the dereliction of the Library. Some books were given to Scholars and some went to the insects. Even after the looting there were some rare books still present, one of which a hadeeth book from the 5th century, another the book of Abu Rayhan Berooni, of which no other copy has been found in Asia or Europe. The remainder of this Library was transferred to Peer Muhammad Shahs place.


 The Library of Asif Khan


Abdul-Aziz Asif Khan (961/1553) was one of the best viziers of Gujarat. He was a very big scholar, well educated and respected other scholars. He had his own personal Library, which had many rare books. Once he was coming from Makkah after purchasing many books for himself when at Managalore, a storm brewed, he survived, but the ship sank and all the gifts of the journey were lost. He grieved over the loss of his sword, servant, horse and many rare books for the rest of his life. From those books was also a copy of Mishkaat which was written by hand by the author Waliyuddin Khatib Tabrizi, he purchased this in Makkah, and gave its weight in gold in exchange. He had also given 40 Ashrafees to the person which found this for him.


The oldest copy of Sahih Muslim in the Library of Sultan Mahmud


Molana Imtiaz Ali writes in his works:


An old copy of Sahih Muslim in Hindustan: In the Library of Rampur, an old copy of Muslim Sharif is safe which was written in Jamadiul-Ukhra 787/1385. Two Faazils wrote this together. The author of the first binder is: Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Muhammad and the author of the second binder is Ibrahim bin Hajee Sulemanbin Muhammad bin Esa. The places were it was written is the fortree Darul-Amaan.


The book was written in 3 parts.  There is no Bibliography or finishing sentence at the end of the first part. At the end of the 2nd part it is written in Arabic:


“this second part of Sahih Muslim is completed on the Friday, the 5th of Jamadiul-Ukhra year 787, at the Fortress of Darul-Amaan, May Allah save it from waste, by the hand of, seeker of Allah’s mercy Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Muhammad” page 385.


At the end of the final part it says:


“Part 3 has finished, and it is the final part, of Sahih Muslim, on the 23rd of Jamadiul-Ukhra, year 787 at the hands of the sinful, in need of mercy: Ibrahim bin Hajee Suleman bin Muhammad Yahya.”


In many of the Footnotes of this book there is mention of further information of there own study, complete with dates, from which we can easily see how long it took to read this.  The first footnotes highlights the date Jamdiaul-ula 787/1385 and the final footnote unfortunately is erased but the previous one 27 pages earlier is dated Jamdiul-Ukhra 787/1385. From this we can estimate that this was completed on the first of Rajab.  At the end of the 2nd and 3rd parts the Ustad had wrote the name of the reciters in detail. Now only the second is remaining. From this we are able to ascertain that the reader is Shamsuddin Ali bin Umad, and he had quite a position and very intelligent or else his teacher would not have remembered him in this manner. After this recitation, another Muhaddith taught this book to his son Yahya which is evidenced by pg 58 by the following words: my son has received recitation of this book 20 Rajab 805. After this on page 361 it is evidenced that Abdurrahman, another son of the Sheikh also received recitation of the latter part of this book. There are various different editions referred to in the Footnotes which highlight that the Person who checked it went through 5 editions to ensure its correctness. They are:-


1)     Jaludi’s edition: By Jaludi we mean Abu Ahmad Muhammad Esa bin Muhammad bin Abdurrahman Zahid Jaludi Neeshapure (368/979) he heard Sahih Muslim from Ibrahim bin Muhammad bin Sufyan Neeshapure (308/920) and according to Abu Abdullah Hakim Naisapure, after him no-one is a  trusted narrator from Kisai. The main student of Jaludi from whom the chain continues, is Abul-Hussein Abdul Ghafir, Muhammad bin Abdul Gafir Farsi fasawi Naisapure (448/1056), from him Hafiz Hasan Samarkandi and Abu Saeed Buhairi read Sahih Muslim more than 30 times and 20 times respectively directly. That’s why this edition is very important

2)     Magrabi’s edition: Allama Nawawi has wrote in the preface of Shara Muslim that in the east the famous chain of narration for Sahih Muslim is via Abul Ishaq Ibrahim bin Muhammad bin Sufyan. However in the west the chain used the most is another and it is the only one in that sense namely Abu Abdulla Muhammad bin Yahya al-Hazzah At-Tamimi Al-Qurtubi from Abil-ula Abdul-Wahab bin Isa bin Abdurrahman, Bin Mahan Al-Baghdadee from Abi bakr Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Yahya Al-Ashqar Alfaqee Asshafee from Abu Muhammad Al-Qalansi from Muslim bin Hajjaj Al- Qushari.  In my understanding the proof reader of this edition is meaning this edition when referring to Magrabi’s edition.

3)     Hafiz Ismail Isfahani’s edition: From this he means Hafiz ABul-Qasim Ismail ibn Muhammad Ibn Fazal-al-Qurashi al-Isfahani, born in 457/1065 and died in 535/1141. He is the student of Ibne-Mardaway and the teacher of Hafiz ibne Asakir, author of The history of Damascus. Allama Zahabee states in Tazkiratul Huffaz pg 72: that I heard directly from Abdul-Jaleel ibn Muhammad Kuba narrating from the Scholars of Baghdad of that time that after Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal there was no greater Muhadith or virtuous person.

4)     Hafiz Abdul-Ghani Maqdesi’s edition: Hafiz Abdul-Ghani was born in 541 and died in 600. Tajul- Kindi states that there has been no other Muhadith as great as him after Dar-e-Kutni. He has various books on Hadeeth.

5)     Makkah Edition: on page 549, it refers to this edition. I have not been able to find out whose edition this is.


Apart from The recitation and names of the listeners, there is also further explanation of the words in the footnotes. At the end of some of these footnotes the writers name is mentioned as Mahmud Umad. In one place he mentions Taqreeb and at another he mentions At-taqreeb wat-tahzeeb. Both of these are books by Ibne Hajar Asqalaani. Tahzeeb was written in808 and the other in 827/1424. From this we can ascertain that these footnotes were written after 827. Prior to this edition it is probably correct to say that Mahmud Umad is the younger brother of the first person who read namely Shamsuddin Ali bin Umad.






 On the top of this edition the following writings and Seals are present:


1)     The seal of Abdurrahim Khankanan: It is written within this seal, Abdurrahim bin Muhammad 991, and beneath the seal it also endorses its entry at 992.

2)     The seal of Muswee Khan: The stamp of the seal states Muswee Khan 1029, and also it is endorsed.

3)     The seal of Hasnul-Husna: The stamp reads reliant upon Allah who is Ghani, HasnulHusna. Again above the seal is endorsed with writing.

4)     It is written beneath the writing of Hajee Hasan which means that Hajee Hasnul-Hasna gave this book as a gift to Ali-al-Hussaini.

5)     There is written beneath a scrubbed out seal which means that this Book has been given to me by way of purchasing.





6)      The seal of Molvi Amanullah: The seal bearer has written beneath: that he has acquired this book by way of purchase, however the writing within the seal is illegible.


Apart from these seals and writing, in two places is the seal of Sultan Mahmud Gujarati. On the first seal someone has written: ‘The seal of Sultan Mahmud Gujarati. There is also a verse within the seal in Persian with a prayer as well.




The Historian of Urdu writes:

From the states which received independence, one was Gujarat. The Ruler Zafar Khan adopted the title Muzaffar Shah and instilled his name into the sermons and circulated his own coins. Muzaffar Shah (813/1410) to make an influential Court, really attracted and looked after the Scholars and virtuous, and even after him the Sultans of Gujarat treated the Scholars and Sufis etc so well financially and in stature, that they travelled to Gujarat in large groups.


The author of Mirat-e-Ahmadi mentions how the scholars and Sufis flocked to Gujarat for the benefits which the Sultan Bestowed.


That is why we can see that the first steps to bring Urdu Grammar to the forefront are clearly visible in Gujarat itself.

The pure Hindu Narrations of Gujri Grammar became clean, fresh and accepted that even the later generations, when putting their articulate Sufi views forward like the way and structure of this narrative.

In Murshid Nama Sheikh Abdul Qaddoos Gangohee (945/1537) uses this same type of structure. This is also seen in Garo Garanth . In Dakkan Meeranjee Shamsul usshaq (902/1496), Ibrahim Adil Shah Jakat(1036/1626), Burhanuddin Janam(990/1582), Shah Dawal(1067/1656) etc all use this same structure. Until even the 18th century A.D. Shah Abdul Latif Betai (1752) also uses this structure to put forward his Sufi views.

 From the examples of Old Urdu which are found in Gujarat, they consist of either the words of the Sufis from which today’s language can be made out or they are examples of the poetry which came via the pens of poets like Shah Bajun, Kazee Mahmud Daryaee, Shah Ali Jewu Ghaudani and Khub Muhammad Chishti. It is the first time that we get continuous information regarding the creation of this language which we cannot find anywhere else.

It is important to mention that this language, when it came from the North and mixed with the language of Gujarat, then this mixing separated and the language Gujri Urdu came into being.


This language which we call Urdu today, was scarcely being made in far away areas of this nation, whilst here in Gujarat and Dakkan had already taken form as grammar and poetry.


The effect of Gujarat on Dakkan


From the history of Dakkan in this era, it is clear that a lot of Scholars and poets came to Beejapur from Gujarat. At the downfall of the empire, Ibrahim Adil Shah called all of the poets from there to his Court. Therefore these poets which had left Gujarat to Dakkan had a big hand in increasing awareness regarding Urdu literature. And probably, this is the reason that various Urdu writers in Bejapur such as Shah Burhan named their language Gojri. However it is possible that by the effect of Gujarat the Literature of Dakkan may have changed,  and the people which wrote in this changed literature called their own language Gojri and the older language started being referred to as Dakkan.

The interest of the residents of Gujarat in Urdu can be seen and evidenced in the writing of Molana Fazluddin Muhammad bin Qawan Balkhi, who is a resident of Qari province in Gujarat. Molana Fazluddin in his writing Shar-e-Mukhzini Asrar, which was written after 795 mentions certain Persian words as being similar to Urdu words. In his book Bahrul-Fazail which was written in 838, there are more than 300 Urdu words which have been mentioned in explanation of various Persian and Arabic words.  Apart from this, he talks briefly about Hindustan’s geography, Astronomy, seasons, music, and plants. At the end he brings a chapter in which he mentions certain Hindi words which come up and are used in Hindi poetry.

It is clear from all this that in Gujarat at the time of publication of this book there was a lot of interest in Hindi/ Urdu.

We are completely in the dark in regards to the first people who used Hindi verses in Gujarat, even though we are aware of its presence. For example a verse with Urdu is found in Bahrul-Fazail. Molana Bin Qawam wrote this in 837 which clearly highlights that in this period there were a lot of interest in Hindi poetry. Molana in his last chapter mentions only those words which are used in Hindi verses.

Furthermore, Molana Sheerani writes that it is worth mentioning, that the author of Bahrul-Fazail lives in Gujarat. . Also it seems that the Language Urdu, contrary to what we thought is even older than the Moghul era.  Underneath, I would now like to mention some words from Bahrul-Fazail so that you may appreciate these words that were known as Hindu or Hinuwee words in that period. Jamaee, palak, tarphala, Girgit, kunwar, Chuna, Barhata, jilaha, chikna choor, khor, sandh, baree laung, haree chulai, ber, bekhan kurtey, buj patar, Melai, Gaungaroo, akhrot, suwar, tanmba, gudgudee.


Old Urdu proverbs


Sultan Mahmud made a violin for himself, which took six months to completion. The Maker was bringing the violin which was studded with jewels to the Sultan when on the way he met Kazee Najmuddin, who broke the violin proclaiming it to be against religion. When the King found out he did not say anything to the Kazee, rather just said a sentence which contained as a majority Urdu words.

The sentence which Qutbul-alam said on the birth of Hazrat Raju Kital to Shah Mahmud also contained Urdu words.

There are many examples of Urdu words being used  for example the sentence by Hazrat Shahiya in regards to Sultan Shah Ghazni 922/1516.

Sultan Qutbuddin who had a strong spiritual link with Hazrat Shahiya also mentioned a verse which contained Urdu words.

A verse consisting of Urdu words is still intact in Rae-Kher, upon a mosque in Ahmadabad.

Wajeehuddin Alawi Gujarati’s disciples got together and wrote a book named Bahrul-haqaa-iq, wherein the questions where in Persian, yet the answer Shah Wajeehuddin gave were in Urdu. The following answers give you a feel of the language used in that time.


Apno ko kya kashf huey ya na huey, kaam us ka hai. This is just as a sample.


Request by Jahanghir for an Urdu Transalation


In the gathering of the 13th year, Jahanghir was in Mahmud Abad, Gujarat.  He said to Sayyed Mohammad Nabira, Hazrat Shah Alam Gujarati, that ask of me, he refuses, but the King persists. In the end the king swears him to the Quraan that ask something of me. Sayyed replies that since you have sworn me by the Quraan then just give me Quraan. Upon this Jahanghir gave Sayyed a Quran, studded with jewels from the rare items kept in the Royal Library, and he endorsed the back with the time of gift and place etc. After that he requested Sayyed to translate the Quraan and deliver it via his son Sayyed Jalal to me.

From the words used by Jahanghir at this occasion, in particular the word Raikhta indicates the Language Raikhta meaning Urdu. There was no shortage of Iranian Scholars in the Court of Jahanghir so why would he ask a saint of Ahmadabad for this request? A request for a translation in Urdu would have been appropriate, especially as in those days the writing of Urdu was happening, and books were written in Gojri or Gojri Urdu, however some authors say that this request by Jahanghir was a request for the translation in Persian which was done.






The Ahmadabad of the Ahle-Sunnat


The author of Zafarulwala states in the incident of 977 that in Muharram of 977, Changez Khan did that which the Shia’s do in the 1st ten days of Muharram, when the foundation of Ahmadabad is on the beliefs and actions of the Ahle-Sunnat. That’s why there were more people that criticised Changez Khan upon this action then those who praised him. One of the main critics was one of the lords and Scholars namely Meeyah Wajeehuddin Alawee. What Changez Khan did was that in the morning of Ashurah, he and his companion came out and they were dressed from head to toe in black, even their mounts were black and they had a black flag raised. But the horse slipped at the entrance of the house and the flag broke that’s why a second flag had to be raised upon his head.

The author of Zafarulwala says that no one should have any doubt in regards to the faith of Changez Khan. He was a Sunni and this Shia action which occurred by him was not because of his belief, rather from his lack of knowledge. And such a person does not become a Shia, nor comes out of Ahle- Sunnat, when all of his seatings, social gatherings, prayers all were with Ahle-Sunnat, and he also had all the respect for the saints of Ahle-Sunnat.


The (appreciation) respect for scholars and saints


The scholars, Sufis, Imams of the Mosques and Derwaish’s were given a lot of salaries by the government. Apart from the Scholars and Sufis of Gujarat, foreign scholars also received Salaries.

There were two types of Land. Inherited and without inheritance. The first type was more than often given to Soldiers, Imams of Mosques and Sheikhs. Thus in the time of Sultan Qutbuddin Ahmad, two parts of Gujarat was in the hands of the soldiers and one part was in the name of the Imams of mosques, Sheikhs, Sufis and scholars.




Gunyatul-Maniyah is a compilation written on Hindi Music which was written in the time of Firoz Shah Tagluk (758-789) upon the request of Ibrahim Hasan, governor of Gujarat. This compilation is made around the Hindi language and is split over 2 parts, 4 chapters and 18 sections. Thus, Part 1, chapter 1 is about melodies, chapter 2 in regards to the flute. Part 2, chapter 1, regarding dance. Chapter 4 is about the rules of music.

Prior to this an Arabic compilation: Fariduzaman fee marifatul ilhan, who’s topic is Iranian music was translated upon this Governors request.

The Musician Bakshu: Raja Man had advanced a lot in Music. Dir pid had become an expert under his guidance. They were advanced musicians in his court, some of whom were classed as masters in their field for example the singer Bakshu, who is a Muslim and was educated by the same Raja. The singer Bakshu after the death of Raja Man stayed with his son Raja Bakarmajeet for a while. After that he came to Raja Keerat of Kalanjar. From there he went to the Court of Bahadur Shah Gujarati in Gujarat (932), he spent the rest of his life here. After Bakshu, Tanseen made his name in Music. Tanseen was the student of Sheikh Muhammad Ghosgawalyaree. In the beginning he was with Ramchandar Bakheela. When Jalaluddin Akbar heard of his fame he called him to his court.


The Lords/Leaders or Sadaat of Ahmadabad


1)     The Lords/Sadaat of Bukhariya: These are the children of Kutbul-Alam and Hazrat Shah Alam.

2)     The Lords/Sadaat of Kaadariyah: who are the children of the great saint Abdul-Qadir Jelanee, from these Sayyed Jamal Pathree, Sayyed Abdul Jalil and Sayyed Abdul-Khaliq are most famous.

3)     Another famous Saadat is the one of the family Sherazi, from those is Sayyed Ahmad Jafar Sherazi and his children. Likewise Sayyed Kamaluddin Sherazi whose tomb is behind the mosque Aweena, and thirdly Sayyed Abu Turab and his children.

4)     Lords: The Rifai Sadaats who are the children of Sayyed Ahmad Kabeer Rifai. From them is Abdurrahim whose tomb is outside the Fortress of Ahmadabad in Sultanpur. From his offspring is Shah Ali jee Gam Duni etc.

5)     The Lords of Mashadee: From this family is Sayyed Sharfudeen Mashadee who is the son in law of Makhdoom Jahaniyah and his tomb is in Bharuch.

6)     The Sadaat of Eid Ruusiyah who are the children of Eid Rus Hazramotee. The tomb of Sayyed Sheikh Eid Ruus is in Jawharee Wara and his Children are buried in Surat and Bharuch

7)     The Sadaat of Tirmizi: these are the children of Makhdoom Sayyed Yahya Tirmizi, who was the Disciple of Makhdoom Jahaniyah, whose tomb is situated in Baroda next to the Lake, which is also known as Lake Matarya.

8)     The Sadaat of Sayyed Yakub: who are the children of Makhdum Sayyed Badr Bhakri and he also was the Disciple of Makhdum Sayyed Jahaniyah.

9)     The Sadaat of Areedhe: Sayyeed Khund Meir and Sayyed Yakub are both from the Sayyed Sadaat of Areedhi, whose tomb is in PipiPur.

10) The Sadaat of Zaidiyah: Sayyed Usman Shama Burhani is from the Sadaat Zaidiyah.


A final look at Ahmadabad


It is written in Zafarulwala that Gujarat, in the time of the reign of Muzzafar was classed as a quarter of all the inhabited areas. However all signs of this were wiped away in the Hamayun incident. Then for a second time it became populated from the time of Sultan Mahmud. The army itself totalled at that occasion in there hundreds of thousands. At the time of the attack of Akbar they were 12,000 horsemen army personnel.

700 horsemen under the command of Muhammad Rabig Khan, 300 from the Turks under the flag of Rustum Khan, 400 under the flag of Amir Haibat Khan, 600 horsemen from the Ghauris under the flag of their leader Amin Khan, 500 from the Mughals under the flag of the Sultan, 500 from the Sadat of Bukhara under their leader and their leader was Sayyed Hamed bin Sayyed Merrah bin Sayyed Mubarak Bukhari, 4000 from the Afghan under the flag of their leader Sher Khan Faludi, and 5000 from the from all the Gujaratis who where under the flag of Ikhtiyarul-malak Sultani. There were 300 elephants, 500 copper and brass cannons and twelve thousand guns, which were with Amir bin Jahanghir and Asad Khan. Apart from them there were other Horsemen and army footmen who were not less than 100,000.




The jewels in the treasury of Gujarat were so magnificent that no other Hindustani Sultanate could compare in that era.

It is written in Jawahir Nama, that Jewellers state: that it is not possible to see 15 carat diamonds easily, however there are 30-40 carat diamonds present in the treasury of Gujarat.

That is why King Akbar made Itimad Khan Gujarati who was the vizier of the Late sultan of Gujarat Muzaffar Shah, its treasurer.

Bahadur Shah was very famous due to his generosity; whenever it came to rewarding he would not give an amount less than 100,000. That’s why after consultation with his viziers he made a lower value Tinka, which was 21 Dokre. This was the equivalent to 1 pesa in Copper. With this amount the value of the Tinka of Bahadur Shah would be equivalent to 8 of todays.  Even though it is written in Zafurwala that when Bahadur Shah conquered Chitor in 941/1534,  at that time 1,000,000 old Gujarati Sika’s were equivalent to 40,000,000 of Dehli’s Sika, i.e. one Gujarati Tinka was worth 40 of Hindustani Tinka.

Tinka is equivalent to 1 tola of silver.

Sultan Sikander Ludi used to say a verse which highlighted the wealth of the Sultans of Gujarat.

Historians have praised the economic prosperity of Gujarat, its buildings and beautiful climate.


Destruction at the hands of the Mughals:


When the Gujarati’s were defeated at the hands of the Himayun, and according to the Mughal custom the Himayun put on the bloody attire, and started killing and slaughtering indiscriminately, then Miyah Manjhu came in front of him at that very moment, and upon his request played such a musical tone, that the Himayun were speechless, and they were in awe by him. They immediately donned their red dress. After this Manjhu saved thousands of his fellow Gujarati’s by declaring them his relatives. The Himayun respected Manjhu to an extent that they became his colleague and friends, however his heart could not want for these blood thirsty Mughals and he ran away. Bahadur Shah had so much respect and admiration for Manjhu that when he reached him, Bahadur Shah said: ‘I have found you Miyah Manjhu, and it is as if I have received the Sultanate of Gujarat back.’





Until here, the history of Ahmadabad is mentioned and discussed as in the book: Mashaaik-e-Ahmadabad. After this the first saint whose biography is mentioned is namely Shah Shirwani Chishti (1348). Apart from his biography, close to 500 biographies are contained in this book of saints that lived in this time. I mention a few here briefly as an indication and flavour of what is contained in this great book:


1)     Shah Shirwani: He is the disciple of Shamsuddin Turk Panipati whose tomb is next to the Mazang stand in Lahore. He passed away in 1348A.D.

2)     Sheikh Kamaluddin: he was a great relator and jurist, and also he was the greatest Disciple of Nasiruddin Chirag Dehlwi. He passed away in 1355.A.D.

3)     Sheikh Raziuddin: He was the disciple of Shah Rukn-e-Alam Multani and also the teacher of Makhdum Jahanneya Jahan Ghast, His resting place is in Patan, Gujarat, India 1368A.D.

4)     Jamaluddin Khandaru: A King like Giyasuddin Taghluk was his disciple. He was in charge of the lecturing of Ahadeeth and Jurisprudence at Ood Sharif, Punjab, Pakistan in the Khanqah Jamaliyah. He is also from the disciples of Makhdum Zakariya Multani.

5)     Makhdum Jahanneya Jahan Ghast: He travelled to every corner of the globe. And took benefit spiritually of over 130 Saints of that time and also received Khilafat from them. His own disciples massed to more than quarter of a million. He gave many of his Disciples initiation, forty-two of which Allah took great service in the field of Tasawwuf, some of these are: his brother Sadruddin RajuKital, Sheikh Rajgheeri, Ilmuddin Tirmizi, Sheikh Sirajuddin, Sayyed Ashraf Jahanghir Samnani, Sayyed Sharfuddin Mashadi, etc. Saint Makhdum was extremely humble so much so that when one person named him using a prestigious title he replied that he was but a person in need. He passed away in 1382 A.D. and his tomb is in Ood Sharif.

6)     Sheikh Samauddin: He was the authority of the chain Sahaawardiyah. He made ablution in the middle of the night, and until the morning, spent half of the time in Nawaafils, and the other half in Remembering Allah and Zikr, then until the morning would remain in meditation. After this, lecturing would start, in which he would give lecture on the Ahadeeth and principles of Jurisprudence. After lecturing, the training and correction of his disciples would start that continued until late afternoon (asr), After the late afternoon prayer he would remain in deep meditation and thought until sundown (Maghrib), then after The prayer of Isha he would eat and then rest. He passed away in Delhi 1496A.D. and his tomb is in the graveyard of Hawd-e-Shamsi.


This above is a condensed example, and in this manner you will find the Biographies of upto 500 saints and great people in this book Mashaaik-e-Ahmadabad. Unfortunately I have not been able to give this great book of my beloved teacher, justice in its translation.

May Allah bring that Golden Era again in this Ummat and save us from materialistic worship.



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