After the death of the Sultan Muzzafar Khan his grandson Sultan Ahmad sat on the throne. He also became the disciple of Sheikh Ahmad Khatwee. One day Sultan Ahmad requested from his Sheikh a meeting with Hazrat Kizar. He replied: I will ask Hazrat Kizar. If he agrees so then it may be possible.
Sheikh asked, and Hazrat Kizar replied: ‘he should remain in God’s
worship for forty days. Thus the Sultan stayed in worship for a period of one
month, upon which it was ordered that he complete another two periods. After
completing three periods the Sultan was sat in Sheikh Ahmad’s room when Hazrat
Kizar came into the room after the Morning Prayer. During the conversation
Sultan Ahmad made a request that ‘show me something wonderful from the world,’
he replied: ‘on the edge of the river Saburmuttee, where these days there is
desert, there used to be city, which was called Baadaahbad and the people of
this city where well-off and rich. One day I felt hungry and I went into this
city. I came to a sweet shop, intending to purchase some sweets in exchange for
3 tinka’s when the shopkeeper said immediately after seeing me: ‘You seem a
saint to me, I cannot take any money from you, but take as much sweet as you
like.’ After a period of time I passed again from there and there was no sign
of the people of this city, nor of the shops or buildings. Upon its ruins I saw
a 150 year old man. I asked him regarding this city to which he replied: ‘I do
not know about this city too; however I have heard from my elders that there
used to be a city here, which was called Baadaahbad. Sultan asked Hazrat Kizar’s permission in
regards to that if he so wished I could order that a city be made there. Hazrat
Kizar replied: ‘that is not a problem, however there is a condition that from
the whole country four such persons should be brought forth, whose name is
Ahmad and who have in their whole life not even missed the Voluntary late
afternoon prayer, and these persons lay the foundations for this city and this
city be called Ahmadabad. Thus it was ordered that four such persons be
found. In the whole of
It is written in Mirat-e-sikandaree
that Sultan Ahmad laid the foundation of
In this way the foundation stone was laid by his blessed hand in the years of 810/813.
When Sheikh Ahmad Khatu went to lay the foundation stone he saw a pious
person sat on his way. That saint called out to him. The Sheikh went to him and
for a short while they both spoke to one another. Then taking leave of this
pious saint he left and then laid down the foundation of
At the end of Miraat-e-ahmadi it states that: ‘The four people named Ahmad who were present at the placing of the foundation stone of Ahmadabad and the twelve pious saints who helped in the making of its fortress are as follows:
1) Sheikh Ahmad Khatu, whose tomb is in Sarkheej;
2) Sultan Ahmad the maker of
3) Malak Ahmad whose tomb is next to the Kalupur door;
4) Khadi Ahmad Lajhar who is mentioned with the saints of Patan.
From the 12 saints are:-
1) Saint Kuju
2) Saint Laru and
3) Saint Karamat
The above three are buried in Daulkah.
4) Saint Ali Sher
5) Saint Mahmood
These two are buried in Sarkheej and resided there.
6) Saint Ali Sher : He was very absorbed and remained without clothes. Whenever Hazrat Ahmad Khatu came to meet him he used to request in Gujarati that: ‘Bring clothes, the one who confines Sharah is here.
7) Saint Luluee, who is also known as Baboo Muhammad, his burial is in Manjhuri.
8) Saint Ahmad Hanghuri, who is known as Nalbhandi, he wasn’t from Nalbhand, however on Nukhas Street, the old mosque in front of Masjid Nalbhand, Where all Nalbhand used to gather and sit, he used to sit also, for this reason he was also known as Nalbhandi, he received his sainthood through the chain of Sultan Nizamuddin.
9) Saint Ludha, who is buried close to Kharki
10) Saint Dokhal who is buried between the doors of
11) Saint Sayyah who is buried in Bir-makanam.
12) Saint Kamal Kirmani, his grave is next to the mosque with one minaret in Bahrampur. However there is some conflict over this, some say that Saint Kamal Kirmani is buried here, some say that Saint Kamal Malwee is buried there. This Saint also received his Saint hood from the chain of Sultan Nizamuddin.
Saint Luluee is the disciple of Sheikh Nizamuddin’s prominent Khalifah
Nasiruddin Chirag Dehlwi. Saint Dhawkal is the disciple of Saint Tawakul, the
same Saint Tawakul is the Disciple of Nizamuddin. Shah Wilaayat who is buried
in Dhawlkah is also a disciple of Nizamuddin, who sent him especially towards
The majority of the aforementioned saints and pious people remained with
this saint and this Shah Wilayat came to
At the end of Mirat-e-Ahmadi it states:
In the year of 850hijri within 3 years the fortress of
1) The door of Sahranpur
2) The door of Kalupur
3) The door of Aslooriyah, which was between the doors of Band and Rahepur
4) The door of Khanpur
5) The door of Raheghar
6) The door of Khanjahan
7) The door of Shah pur
8) The door of Aidriyah, which is also called the Door of Delhi
9) The door of DaryahPur, which is between The door of Shahpur and the window of Aidriyah
10) The door of Jamalpur
11) The door of Band and
12) The door of Rahepur
Which had the following openings, towards the east where the doors of
The northern doors are Shahpur, Aidriyah and DaryahPur.
The remaining southern doors are Jamalpur, Band and Rahepur.
The author of Mirat-e-Ahmadi Mirza Muhammad Hassan narrates from the
author of Haft Aqleem that: The city of
Its centre compared to other centres is more beautiful and wider, and the males and females are very beautiful, the truth is you will struggle to find a city of similar quality, that is why it is also termed as ‘most beautiful of cities’ and ‘the prince city’.
It has 17 major intersections, which are:
1) Chakla bazaar
6) Bhandri pur
7) Asdr pur, this is also known as Aparpur
13) Shah pur
Here on every intersection there is a terrace upon which there are guards appointed.
There are 450 mosques, and in one narration 500 impressive mosques, whose marble was brought from afar for their construction. The mosques were named after Sultans, princes and even the women of the harem.
Asdarpur, Kalupur, Tajpur, Jamalpur, Esenpur, Betipur, Surpur, Usarwapur, Sameepur, Gayazpur, Sheikhpur, Usmanpur, Shahpur, Qadhipur, Hajepur, Multanpur, Daryapur, Maqsoodpur, Mahpur, Munirpur, Ludipur, Sikanderpur, Ahmadpura, Habatpura, Baklipur, Haripur, Harharpur, Rupur, Kalupur, Rasulpur, Ghalibpur, Sayyad Abad Urf Sarspur, Barspur, Metapur, Jamnapur, Sahibpur, Saleempur, Khempur, Nasirpur, Rasulpur, Parmapur, Sarankpur, Afzalpur, Becanpur, Toganpur, Rajpur, Komtipur, Maryampur, Alimghanjwara, Pur Bahawudin pur, Kanskee wara, Dalalpuree, Ghopalpuree, Muazampur, Manjanpur, Babeepur, Shahganj, Nawapura, Sultanpurm, kishwarpur, Masoompur, Muradganj, Minpur, Bacampur, Rehmatpur, Sayedpur, Changezpur, Kencopur, Kankalpuree, Heerpur, Farkpur, Zorawarpur, Rasulabad, Rolepura, Hamedpura, Usmanpur, Adalpur, Ferozpur, Selabatpur, Sharqpur, Shadmanpur, Amadalpur, Sultanpur, Qasimpur, Fatahpur, Kamaludinpur, Isapur, Rahimpur, Miranpur, Khanpur, Khwanpur, Kutubpur, Hasanpur, Mahmudpur, Sarapur, Irandapur, Arpanapur, Kizarpura.
Sultan Mahmood who is also known as Beghra came on to the throne in the
year 863/1459A.D. The final part of the ninth century was a peaceful time. Thus
in 892/1487 he constructed the four walls of
The author of Asar-e-Rahimi has also praised this city of
Hakeem Azraqee has even wrote a poem regarding this in Persian
Frishta writes that when Sultan Ahmad Shah reached the province of Asawil in regards to a battle, he really liked the atmosphere there and near the end of 815, under the supervision of Sheikh Ahmad Khatu he laid down the foundation of a city on the edge of the river Sabarmatee, which was named Ahmadabad, which after a few days became populated and became the capital of the King s of Gujrat, with the province Asawil becoming part of its area. The houses of the rich and Kings were made out of brick and mortar, with the rest of the houses made from mud. The bazaars were so wide and open that 10 vehicles could travel side by side, the shops were solid, and the fortress and Jamea Mosque were also constructed. Outside the city there are 360 areas, and in every one there is a mosque, shopping area and gridlock walls.
It is even mentioned in Khulasat-tawareekh regarding these areas in Persian.
The author of Mirat-e-Ahmadi has written that when the first people
All of these in reality were as small towns, which were complete with all amenities. Thus the author of Mirat-e-Ahmadi has written in praise of these provinces a verse in Persian.
At another stage he writes that every province was like a large town considering their population. The Author of Tazkiratul-Malik writes that in Usmanpur their were at least 12,000 shops just of craftsmen, and prior to troubled times all the provinces were full of businessmen, workers and families, all of which enjoyed a high standard of living in imposing palaces. Later all these were left desolate and after the conquest of Akbar, their populations were considerably changed, just their names remained.
Here follows the names of the residents of some of these provinces:
Kadhipur: Shahpur was an ancient old province. In the time of Alamgir the senior Judge Khwaja Abdullah re-named this anew upon his own name and cultivated it.
Hajipur: Haji Biharudin who also had the title Adadulmalik, who was from the wealthy of Sultan Mahmood Begra populated this and made a mosque here.
Daryapur: This was populated by one of the wealthy of Sultan Mahmood Begra, namely Darya Khan.
Panahpur: Bahadur Khan who was the Chief of the province whose name was Muhammad Panah, he populated this province in the time of Alamghir.
Jahangirpur: was populated on the name of Jahangir.
Haibatpur: Haibat Khan, one of the wealthy of the Sultans of Gujarat populated this.
Bibipur: In the time of the sultans of
Nurallah pur: Sheikh nur Muhammad whose title was Amanat Khan populated this in the time of Farkh Ser.
Sarangpur: was populated by one the wealthy Sarangs of The Mahmuds.
Afzalpur: Afzal Khan, one of the wealthy of Sultan Mahmood the 2nd populated this.
Toganpur: Togan, one of the wealthy of the Mahmuds populated this.
Manjahnpur: The grandson of Shah Alam, Sayed Masood populated this in the name of his grandfather.
Babeepur: Safdar Khan Babee populated this.
Nawapur, Ghanjpur, Sultanpur: were populated by Sayed Abdurrahim Rifai.
Masumpur: Masum Kuli a.k.a Shujaat Khan populated this anew.
MuradGhanj: This was populated in the time of Prince Murad Bhaksh.
Wahabghanj: in the time of Alamgir, Senior Judge Abdulwahab populated this in his own name.
Sayedpur: Sayed Ataullah of the wealthy of Sultan Ahmad populated this.
Changezpur: The servant of Sultan Mahmud the 2nd, Changez Khan populated this.
Bahadurganj: Sultan Bahadur Gujrati populated this.
Akrampur: Akramuddin the leader of the province populated this in the time of Bahadur Shah.
Mufakirpur: In the same time, the brother of Akramuddin Khan, Abul-mafakir Khan populated this.
Aleempur: Khudawand Khan malak Aleemuddin who was from the wealthy of Sultan Ahmad, he made a mosque there and his place of rest is here also.
Farahpur: This is also known as Kadipur, AbulFarah Khan the Judge of the city populated this in the time of Alamghir, and he erected a house and a beautiful mosque, in which he lived.
Nurganj: In the time when Jahangir was busy in hunting and touring, this was populated in the name of Nurjahan Begum.
Zorawarpur: Jawanmard Khan Babee populated this close to the new Eid prayer venu, in the name of his youngest son.
RasulAbad: was populated by Hazrat Shah Alam and also resided here, His tomb is also situated here.
Pura RadweeKhan: Radwee Khan populated this in the time of Alamghir.
AishAbad: Malak Aish a.k.a Nizamulmalik who was from the wealthy of the Mahmuds populated this between Rasulabad and Batwa. He also made a mosque, lake, garden and tomb within, which was surrounded by solid walls.
Khodanpura: Malak Khodan from the wealthy of
Kutubpur: This was named after Hazrat Kutub Alam in his time.
Qasimpur: Mirqasim populated this in the time of Alamghir.
Rajupur: The grandsons of Shah Alam populated this.
Khanpur: Sayed Hasan Khan populated this in the time of Alamghir.
Usmanpur: Sayed Usman, a disciple of Kutub Alam populated this.
Norangpur: Norang populated this in the time of Alamghir.
Salayatpur: Salayat Khan populated this.
Shadmanpur: In the time of Akbar, Shadman the son of Azam Khan populated this.
Sheikhpur: The saint of Sultan Mahmud Begra, Sheikh Rahmatullah populated this.
Molana Jinahudin writes that with the start of Ahmad Shah’s time
442/1411, a new era had started, where great architectural feats were
accomplished. His capital
The keeper of
The cities that the Sultans of Gujarat populated, their vibrancy, population, free spaces and openness were such that they cannot be matched even today.
The Gujarati Sultans made so many roads, bridges, rest houses, hospitals, motels, pools and orphanages that it is difficult to count them.
Streets: When Sultan Ahmad Abad populated
Frishta writes: The streets of
Bahadur Shah often resided in this Palace. Next to this was a very open and imposing building which was called Darbar. The diplomats of other countries met him in this very place. In his time there was another famous palace which was namely Sangarmandip.
Mahmud the 3rd erected a 2 mile lodge in Mahmudabad. He made different types of palaces and out
house buildings within that. In that same era DaryaKhan erected an impressive
In certain areas, the buildings that were erected where unique in their stature and beauty, such as the Jame mosques of Manglore, Khanbayat, Bharuch and Ahmadabad, the moving pillars, in many of the old mosques of Ahmadabad there were only 2 minarets, their speciality was that if one minaret moved, the other would also move (many an English engineer tried to work out how they were linked but could not), the mosque of JutKhaki, the mosque of Jali, the mosque of Ranisapri, are some of the best examples of Ahmadabad’s architecture.
In the place of Sima, from the district of
Patan, a mosque was made which had a compartment for all of the twelve
constellations, so that the moon could be spotted from its constellation in
every month. This mosque remained until the time of Alamghir. The gardens
erected by Shah Jahan next to the royal palace on the bank of the river were
also a masterpiece. In
Sultan Ahmad made a magnificent mosque close to MankChok in 817/1414, which apart from melancholy had 352 pillars. 12 at the melancholy entrance, 8 at the end, and to the North and south sides they were 212 pillars. And apart from further pillars there were 98 domes.
Jahanghir writes in his memoirs:
According to the author of Mirat-e-Ahmadi, Ali
Muhammad Khan in just
In regards to tombs, the tomb of Sheikh Ahmad Khuti, to this day is a remarkable feat in the eyes of experts.
According to Emperor Jahanghir, 500,000 rupees
was spent just on the construction of this tomb alone. Apart from Shah Alam’s
tomb, the tomb of Darya Khan is unique of all buildings in
Jahanghir writes in his memoirs: I went fishing
on the river MahmudAbad. On the
The Sultan Mahmood Beghra made different types of gardens. Some were just of fruits, others of flowers, some just of plants. He planted plentiful trees of mangos, pomegranates, coconuts, jamboline. He planted many gardens in Muhamadabad, from which the mangos where of a high quality. They were many plantations of pomegranates, figs, grapes, apples, bananas, oranges, coconuts, all of which were of a high quality.
A worker of Sultan Mahmud made a Khurasani
style garden for the Sultan. The sultan named that
After this gardening became very popular in
written in Mirat-e-Ahmadi that people say that it consisted of 900,000 trees.
That’s why this garden was also known as
In some history books it is written that from
Because of all these trees the weather in
Aleemudin Khudawand Khan was the first person
who bought the fig tree from Dakkan and planted it in
Sultan Kutbuddin planted a very simple garden
in the middle of
In the time of Mahmud the 3rd the Lodge that was made in Mahmudabad, next to this was a very large garden/park. Consistently the branches of its trees were filled with colourful cloth and in the autumn season its branches were decorated with artificial flowers.
After seeing the interest in gardens by the Sultans, other rich and wealthy also became interested and they planted many gardens, which remained until the end of the Moghul times. Thus the gardens of Hiree, Rustum, Gulab, Taut, Badar, shahee, Karez, Haweli, Shahbari, Chanpaneer, Fatah and irm were as a direct result of this interest.
It is mentioned in Kokab Falak which is written piece from the time of Sultan Muzaffar the 4th and Akbar that in Keronj there were 500,000 mango trees.
This interest also passed from the rich and wealthy into the poor. Thus one old poor lady also made a garden, which had a lack of water, and by the order of the king a well was dug for it.
The author of Mirat-e-Ahmadi narrates from the author of Tazkiratul-Malook that in Usmanpura alone there were 12,000 shops of craftsmen. There were many Gardens surrounding the city, which had different types of Fruits and plants, flowers, beautiful architecture, large fountains and flowing streams, surrounded on all four sides by beautiful trees.
A very beautiful garden, the
In short when Hazrat Shah Alam reached the lake
at the time of its digging out his foot was stung by a stone upon which he
exclaimed: ‘what type of stone is this?’ (khankar is the name for stone in
Gujarati) from this the lake was famously known as
In one narrative it is mentioned that when the
Sultan asked Hazrat that where this digging should occur, Hazrat threw a stone
to mark the place. This is why it was called
In the same way the ‘Shahbari’ of
Another one of Sultan Mahmud Begra’s gardens was in the area of Haweli at Katrar, in which Sultan Mahmud planted 900,000 flower trees amongst other things, that’s why this garden was named NoLakh.
In the same way the
The garden of the trees of Haleela, this was also at Rakhyal.
In the same way the
In the Vicinity of Parghana: were the
Fatah Bag: when Mirza Abdurahim Khankanan became victorious over the ruler of Dakkan Sultan Muzaffar Hussain he made a garden named Fatah Bag in Sarkeej to celebrate.
Jeet Bag: Saif Khan became victorious over Abdullah Khan Firoz so on that place in the name of Jeet bag he planted a garden at the place of Jeetulpur, in which they especially made Bawli, which then became famous with the mane of Dahari Bawli.
Jahanghir writes in his memoirs:
The garden which Khankanan planted on the
battle field was situated on the shore of the River Saburmutee. In that garden
he made a beautiful terrace next to a magnificent building. Surrounding the garden were strong walls made
of Lime and Stone. The area of this garden is 120 Jareebs. And without a doubt
it is a beautiful place to stroll. It is possible that 200,000 rupees would
have been spent in its making. I really liked this Garden. It can be said that
in all of the state of
Jahanghir writes in his memoirs:
On the 28th day of dhay 1026/1617A.D. on a Thursday I went for a stroll in Rustum Khan Bhari. Bhari is a term used for Garden in Hindi. This garden was planted by my brother Shah Murad in the name of his son Rustum Khan. At the end of the day I went into Sheikh Sikander’s garden which is in his compound and close to Rustum Bhari. The figs were very ripe. I broke them with my hands and ate well. Breaking fruits by your hands and eating them is so much more satisfying.
I had not broken figs with my own hands and eaten them until today. Other than this I also wanted to meet the honoured Sheikh Sikander so I entered this garden without any apprehension. Sheikh SIkander is originally a Gujarati and is very intellectual and he is very well aware of the states of the Sultans of Gujarat. He has been in the circles of the wealthy of the realm for upto 8-9 years.
Because Shahjahan Farzand appointed one of his
best persons Rustum Khan as the Governor of Ahmadabad, therefore I upon the
intercession of Farzand granted the
The vast amount of cultivation of flowers and gardens can be estimated by the following incident: That rose syrup was what a doctor prescribed as the cure for a Particular Saint’s troubles. When the Sultan of Gujarat found out, he sent 12 ox driven carts filled of rose syrup for the intention of this saint with a message that: ‘I am sorry, due to my travels at this stage I am only able to send this much to you.’ The question arises that why does such a large amount of Rose syrup remain with the Sultan whilst he is travelling. Historians have answered this by stating that, in fact, this syrup was converted into drink for the Sultan and that is why such large amounts of Roses remained with him.
Jahanghir writes in his memoirs:
On the 22nd of Daye 1026/1617, on
Saturday, I stayed on the
It is written that this
Jahanghir states in his memoirs:
On Sunday, the 23rd of Rajab
1017/1608 I went to Hakim Ali’s house to see a pool. My close friends who had
not seen this pool before were also with me. A pool similar to this was also
The Factories in
At the start of the ninth century, the capital
It is written in Mirat-e-Ahmadi:
In the paper industry, even though the paper
from DolatAbad and
The effect of its blessed name could be seen in every dimension. There were great saints here, understanding and knowledge, philosophers, worldly educated persons, and great inventors and craftsmen. In regards to the cloth industry a 3rd century Arab businessman Suleman writes that: ‘No where has as good cloth as this country. The cotton here is of such a high quality and so fine that you could easily put it in the circle of your thumb.’
He also writes: ‘I have not seen cloth like this anywhere else.’
It is written in Mirat-e-Ahmadi:
In the reign of Mahmud Shah the first the work
of Velvet, Kusti and Embroidery was of the highest quality and the names of
these people were famous in places like
It is written in Kulasatu-tawareekh that the
Lace works, embroidery, velvet, flint and brocade in
The workers and experts here made such an expensive Canopy of velvet and brocade in the time of Shahjahan, that it cost 100,000 rupees to completion.
These workers were such experts in their field,
that the Raja of Jaipur, Jai Singh who wanted Jaipur to be like an
These expert designers of
It is the saying of Bar Bosa that the silk
It is also written that: in the
It is written in Regards to this completed canopy:
It is written in Shah Jahan’s diary that on the
9th of Rabiul-thani 1063 (
Its collective weight was 420,000 Tolas. In the royal palace the coloured flooring was put out with such delicacy that it was a sight to behold.
It is written under the title of the festival of Tulawan:
The festival of Tulawan was held on the 1st of Rabiul-thani 1064 On a Thursday, The veranda of the royal palace glittered with the coloured flooring and seemed like paradise. The Experts of Gujarat at the cost of 100,000 rupees had prepared the cloth, of which the embroidery was dazzling. The 44 pillars of silver peaked with gold where supporting this, its total weight was127 man, 32 ser and 20 tolas. There was a silver cage surrounding this. The inner and outer walls of the palace where wrapped in silk from china and velvet. In the Mehrab of the Palace where silvery chains which had gold balls hanging from them. The jewels resting upon these Pillars and seeing the studded canopy was a beautiful sight. There were chairs and seating of gold. The gold studded cloth, laced with jewels increased the glory. The 2nd Shahjahan sat on the throne and started giving out gold.
In regards to the Festival of ishrat it is written in the history of Shahjahan:
Then came the time of the decoration for the
main palace hall. This palace was adorned and decorated colourfully with the
rare items of various countries. Beautiful embroidered velvet from
The shipping industry and its factories where
situated at Gog Khanbayat and
From the Sultans of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah had a
great love for Cannons. He had collected together all types of cannons, and he
also made such cannons that until then no one in
The Bandooq also entered firstly through
Molana Abu Zaffar writes: it is worth remembering
and noting that the sword made in
Of all the Sultan’s of
The author of Mirat-e-Ahmadi writes that, the governor of Gujarat
Muhammad Safi also known as Saif Khan, built a magnificent and beautiful
Madrassah at the gate of the fortress of Irak in
Kazi Ikramuddin Khan also known as Sheikh-ul-islam built a
magnificent Madrassah in
There is a very large Madrassah in SarKhez where Sheikh Ahmad Khatu’s tomb is also situated. The buildings of this tomb were constructed by Muhammad Shah. It seems that the Madrassah Buildings were also constructed in the time of Mahmud Shah and Muzaffar Shah. The great jurist Ahsanal-Arab Ad-dabawli had a unique position from the teachers of this Madrassah.
The Madrassah of the Scholar Wajeehuddin is the most famous
On the shores of Sabur was a village, which was named after Usman who died in 863, who also populated this. Sheikh Usman also made a mosque there. Muhammad Shah Gujarati had a great Link with the Sheikh. The Sheikh took various benefits in lieu of this Link with the Shah, for example, he was able to get as a donation for the students all the books from the Royal Library.
It can also be known from Mirat-e-Ahmadi that Alamghir sent a
proclamation to the Governor of Gujarat Makramat Khan, in which he ordered
that, Madrassahs should be set up in all areas of the Empire. Education should
be given to the students from Meezan to Kasshaf and the students should receive
bursaries from the treasury as well as an amount for the teachers fixed from
the treasury. Thus as a direct result from this, three Madrassahs were
appointed, one in Ahmadabad, one in Surat and the third in Patan. From this
book we can also prove that in 1087, for the purpose of reconstruction, rupees
were given for the madrassahs, Mosques and hospitals in the fortress of Badhar,
The mosque which is present today in
Molana Emaduddin of present (1155/1742), Molana Nuruddin and Molana Waliyullah were great teachers and supervisor here. Next to this was also a large library. Unfortunately this Madrassah was destroyed in the riots of the Meerhuts. Then on a smaller scale within the heart of the city, in this mosque of Kalipur, which today is called the Mosque of Waliyullah a Madrassah was built. This has also now been closed.
These types of Madrassah’s were aplenty also in
In the same way they were many Madrassahs which educated in Engineering, Music and other fields, in which Hindus and Muslims would Study without any hindrance, and after studying would shine as a Star of Gujarat in the sky. In 890/1145 Genishia was an expert engineer of this period, just as Ishru was in the 11th century a great poet of his time.
When self rule came into
When Akbar conquered
Sheikh Muhammad Usman also known as Sheikh Burhani, disciple of Kutb-e-Alam(857) was a very pious saint. He populated a village on the other side of the River Saburmutee and named it Usman pura. He via Sultan Muhammad Shah built a mosque and madrassah which was called Madrassah Sham-e-Burhani. There was a Library also with this Madrassah, which had the books donated from the royal library as well as others. He was in charge of this himself until 803. Even after him these things remained for a long time, however they were destroyed in the onslaught and rioting of the Marhuts. Now only the mosque and the tomb remain.
Hazrat Sheikh Ahmad Khatwee (845) made a Khanqa,
pool and mosque in
The famous saint of Gujarat Sayyed Muhammad Shah Alam was a practicing scholar. He had a great interest in studying. Due to excessive studying he had marks in both his hands from resting upon them. He had a very large Library, which had very rare books too. Thus when Molana Sadr Jahan came to meet him, he showed Molana such a rare book of Imam Razi that even Molana Sadr Jahan was not aware of it.
His successors also kept adding to it. This Library was at its peak in the time of Sayyed Jafar Badar Alam (1078). He wrote many books himself and included them into the Library. One day in the evening someone asked him for A copy of the Quraan. He replied I will go into the Library and get you a copy. The person said: ‘why do you not give me the one in your possession?’ He always kept a Quraan with him and reluctantly handed that to him. At the time of the looting and rioting of the Marhats, his children went within the confines of the city wall, due to which the Library was not protected fully. As a result of this the Library slowly ebbed away, however even today some remaining books are still in the possession of his generation.
In the time of the King Shah Jahan (1062) the
keeper of this Library was Sayyed Ali Ibne Sayyed Jalal for a short while.
Maqsood Alim bin Sayyed was a prominent respected scholar. He was born in
In Ahmadabad Molana Sheikh Nuruddin was a pious, virtuous Sufi, who obtained his knowledge of Philosophy, logic, maths from Molana Ahmad bin Suleman (1077), who was the real brother of Makhdoom Sheikh Ibrahim bin Suleman. Sheikul-islam constructed a madrassah named Hidayat Baksh for him. 124,000 rupees was spent in its construction. In the year of 1101 the building of the madrassah, the mosque and boarding was completed. Next to it was also a large Library which had books of all subjects. This Library was also for the general public use. Unfortunately this Library was destroyed in the Marhata rioting. Many of its books are present in the Library of Hazrat Pir Muhammad Shah Hedarabad and the mosque is still present by the looking after of local people.
The Mosque in
In Islamic times the status of the Senior Judge
Ahmadabad Sheikh Abdul-Qadir Hadhrami (1038) was a famous saint. One of his
works Annurus-safir fee Ayanul-qarnil-Ashir is a very famous book. I feel that
the street that goes to the east of
This was also a top Library in
whatever Social, scientific and General knowledge was gathered in the Muslim
period, a very large amount of it was destroyed by the Destruction of the
Marhats. Even though some of the remaining books from the Libraries of Gujarat,
are safe in the houses of Sufis, Kazees, and scholars in
It is a shame that I cannot find mention of
this Library anywhere, even though the Qazee by the mouth of the author earned
his livelihood in benefiting others, and knowledge spread throughout
In the same way we are in the dark in regards to the libraries of other Sheikhs and prominent scholars such as Molana Rajeh bin daud (904/1498), Kazee Jagan (920), Molana Ala-u-ddin (949) Molana Abdul-malik (970), Sheikh Hassan Muhammad (982), Kutbuddin (999), Molana Ahmad Kardee (1087), Sayyed Muhammad Rizwi (1111), even though these were very prominent jurists, authors and scholars, upon which Hindustan will always be proud.
This was a unique Library because it was not only
made for the use of the students of the Madrassah, rather anyone with interest
was able to benefit from it. This Madrassah was constructed by Qazee Ikramuddin
a.k.a. Sheik-ul-islam in
It is written about Molana Sheerani that he
decided to do a tour of Tayawaar in
The Madrassah that was constructed under the supervision of Molana Emaduddin had a very large and vast library, which had books from nearly every single subject. Some were very rare indeed. The Library and Madrassah were severely damaged by the onslaught of the Marhats. Slowly over time, Molana Emaduddin’s family lost its interest in knowledge, which resulted in the dereliction of the Library. Some books were given to Scholars and some went to the insects. Even after the looting there were some rare books still present, one of which a hadeeth book from the 5th century, another the book of Abu Rayhan Berooni, of which no other copy has been found in Asia or Europe. The remainder of this Library was transferred to Peer Muhammad Shahs place.
Abdul-Aziz Asif Khan (961/1553) was one of the
best viziers of
Molana Imtiaz Ali writes in his works:
An old copy of Sahih Muslim in
The book was written in 3 parts. There is no Bibliography or finishing sentence at the end of the first part. At the end of the 2nd part it is written in Arabic:
“this second part of Sahih Muslim is completed on the Friday, the 5th of Jamadiul-Ukhra year 787, at the Fortress of Darul-Amaan, May Allah save it from waste, by the hand of, seeker of Allah’s mercy Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Muhammad” page 385.
At the end of the final part it says:
“Part 3 has finished, and it is the final part, of Sahih Muslim, on the 23rd of Jamadiul-Ukhra, year 787 at the hands of the sinful, in need of mercy: Ibrahim bin Hajee Suleman bin Muhammad Yahya.”
In many of the Footnotes of this book there is mention of further information of there own study, complete with dates, from which we can easily see how long it took to read this. The first footnotes highlights the date Jamdiaul-ula 787/1385 and the final footnote unfortunately is erased but the previous one 27 pages earlier is dated Jamdiul-Ukhra 787/1385. From this we can estimate that this was completed on the first of Rajab. At the end of the 2nd and 3rd parts the Ustad had wrote the name of the reciters in detail. Now only the second is remaining. From this we are able to ascertain that the reader is Shamsuddin Ali bin Umad, and he had quite a position and very intelligent or else his teacher would not have remembered him in this manner. After this recitation, another Muhaddith taught this book to his son Yahya which is evidenced by pg 58 by the following words: my son has received recitation of this book 20 Rajab 805. After this on page 361 it is evidenced that Abdurrahman, another son of the Sheikh also received recitation of the latter part of this book. There are various different editions referred to in the Footnotes which highlight that the Person who checked it went through 5 editions to ensure its correctness. They are:-
1) Jaludi’s edition: By Jaludi we mean Abu Ahmad Muhammad Esa bin Muhammad bin Abdurrahman Zahid Jaludi Neeshapure (368/979) he heard Sahih Muslim from Ibrahim bin Muhammad bin Sufyan Neeshapure (308/920) and according to Abu Abdullah Hakim Naisapure, after him no-one is a trusted narrator from Kisai. The main student of Jaludi from whom the chain continues, is Abul-Hussein Abdul Ghafir, Muhammad bin Abdul Gafir Farsi fasawi Naisapure (448/1056), from him Hafiz Hasan Samarkandi and Abu Saeed Buhairi read Sahih Muslim more than 30 times and 20 times respectively directly. That’s why this edition is very important
2) Magrabi’s edition: Allama Nawawi has wrote in the preface of Shara Muslim that in the east the famous chain of narration for Sahih Muslim is via Abul Ishaq Ibrahim bin Muhammad bin Sufyan. However in the west the chain used the most is another and it is the only one in that sense namely Abu Abdulla Muhammad bin Yahya al-Hazzah At-Tamimi Al-Qurtubi from Abil-ula Abdul-Wahab bin Isa bin Abdurrahman, Bin Mahan Al-Baghdadee from Abi bakr Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Yahya Al-Ashqar Alfaqee Asshafee from Abu Muhammad Al-Qalansi from Muslim bin Hajjaj Al- Qushari. In my understanding the proof reader of this edition is meaning this edition when referring to Magrabi’s edition.
3) Hafiz Ismail Isfahani’s edition: From this he
means Hafiz ABul-Qasim Ismail ibn Muhammad Ibn Fazal-al-Qurashi al-Isfahani,
born in 457/1065 and died in 535/1141. He is the student of Ibne-Mardaway and
the teacher of Hafiz ibne Asakir, author of The history of
4) Hafiz Abdul-Ghani Maqdesi’s edition: Hafiz Abdul-Ghani was born in 541 and died in 600. Tajul- Kindi states that there has been no other Muhadith as great as him after Dar-e-Kutni. He has various books on Hadeeth.
5) Makkah Edition: on page 549, it refers to this edition. I have not been able to find out whose edition this is.
Apart from The recitation and names of the listeners, there is also further explanation of the words in the footnotes. At the end of some of these footnotes the writers name is mentioned as Mahmud Umad. In one place he mentions Taqreeb and at another he mentions At-taqreeb wat-tahzeeb. Both of these are books by Ibne Hajar Asqalaani. Tahzeeb was written in808 and the other in 827/1424. From this we can ascertain that these footnotes were written after 827. Prior to this edition it is probably correct to say that Mahmud Umad is the younger brother of the first person who read namely Shamsuddin Ali bin Umad.
On the top of this edition the following writings and Seals are present:
1) The seal of Abdurrahim Khankanan: It is written within this seal, Abdurrahim bin Muhammad 991, and beneath the seal it also endorses its entry at 992.
2) The seal of Muswee Khan: The stamp of the seal states Muswee Khan 1029, and also it is endorsed.
3) The seal of Hasnul-Husna: The stamp reads reliant upon Allah who is Ghani, HasnulHusna. Again above the seal is endorsed with writing.
4) It is written beneath the writing of Hajee Hasan which means that Hajee Hasnul-Hasna gave this book as a gift to Ali-al-Hussaini.
5) There is written beneath a scrubbed out seal which means that this Book has been given to me by way of purchasing.
6) The seal of Molvi Amanullah: The seal bearer has written beneath: that he has acquired this book by way of purchase, however the writing within the seal is illegible.
Apart from these seals and writing, in two places is the seal of Sultan Mahmud Gujarati. On the first seal someone has written: ‘The seal of Sultan Mahmud Gujarati. There is also a verse within the seal in Persian with a prayer as well.
The Historian of Urdu writes:
From the states which received independence,
The author of Mirat-e-Ahmadi mentions how the
scholars and Sufis flocked to
That is why we can see that the first steps to
bring Urdu Grammar to the forefront are clearly visible in
The pure Hindu Narrations of Gujri Grammar became clean, fresh and accepted that even the later generations, when putting their articulate Sufi views forward like the way and structure of this narrative.
In Murshid Nama Sheikh Abdul Qaddoos Gangohee (945/1537) uses this same type of structure. This is also seen in Garo Garanth . In Dakkan Meeranjee Shamsul usshaq (902/1496), Ibrahim Adil Shah Jakat(1036/1626), Burhanuddin Janam(990/1582), Shah Dawal(1067/1656) etc all use this same structure. Until even the 18th century A.D. Shah Abdul Latif Betai (1752) also uses this structure to put forward his Sufi views.
From the examples of Old Urdu which are found in Gujarat, they consist of either the words of the Sufis from which today’s language can be made out or they are examples of the poetry which came via the pens of poets like Shah Bajun, Kazee Mahmud Daryaee, Shah Ali Jewu Ghaudani and Khub Muhammad Chishti. It is the first time that we get continuous information regarding the creation of this language which we cannot find anywhere else.
It is important to mention that this language,
when it came from the North and mixed with the language of
This language which we call Urdu today, was
scarcely being made in far away areas of this nation, whilst here in
From the history of Dakkan in this era, it is
clear that a lot of Scholars and poets came to Beejapur from
The interest of the residents of
It is clear from all this that in
We are completely in the dark in regards to the
first people who used Hindi verses in
Furthermore, Molana Sheerani writes that it is
worth mentioning, that the author of Bahrul-Fazail lives in
Sultan Mahmud made a violin for himself, which took six months to completion. The Maker was bringing the violin which was studded with jewels to the Sultan when on the way he met Kazee Najmuddin, who broke the violin proclaiming it to be against religion. When the King found out he did not say anything to the Kazee, rather just said a sentence which contained as a majority Urdu words.
The sentence which Qutbul-alam said on the birth of Hazrat Raju Kital to Shah Mahmud also contained Urdu words.
There are many examples of Urdu words being used for example the sentence by Hazrat Shahiya in regards to Sultan Shah Ghazni 922/1516.
Sultan Qutbuddin who had a strong spiritual link with Hazrat Shahiya also mentioned a verse which contained Urdu words.
A verse consisting of Urdu words is still
intact in Rae-Kher, upon a mosque in
Wajeehuddin Alawi Gujarati’s disciples got together and wrote a book named Bahrul-haqaa-iq, wherein the questions where in Persian, yet the answer Shah Wajeehuddin gave were in Urdu. The following answers give you a feel of the language used in that time.
Apno ko kya kashf huey ya na huey, kaam us ka hai. This is just as a sample.
In the gathering of the 13th year,
Jahanghir was in Mahmud Abad,
From the words used by Jahanghir at this
occasion, in particular the word Raikhta indicates the Language Raikhta meaning
Urdu. There was no shortage of Iranian Scholars in the Court of Jahanghir so
why would he ask a saint of
The author of Zafarulwala states in the
incident of 977 that in Muharram of 977, Changez Khan did that which the Shia’s
do in the 1st ten days of Muharram, when the foundation of
The author of Zafarulwala says that no one should have any doubt in regards to the faith of Changez Khan. He was a Sunni and this Shia action which occurred by him was not because of his belief, rather from his lack of knowledge. And such a person does not become a Shia, nor comes out of Ahle- Sunnat, when all of his seatings, social gatherings, prayers all were with Ahle-Sunnat, and he also had all the respect for the saints of Ahle-Sunnat.
The scholars, Sufis, Imams of the Mosques and Derwaish’s were given a lot of salaries by the government. Apart from the Scholars and Sufis of Gujarat, foreign scholars also received Salaries.
There were two types of Land. Inherited and without inheritance. The first type was more than often given to Soldiers, Imams of Mosques and Sheikhs. Thus in the time of Sultan Qutbuddin Ahmad, two parts of Gujarat was in the hands of the soldiers and one part was in the name of the Imams of mosques, Sheikhs, Sufis and scholars.
Gunyatul-Maniyah is a compilation written on
Hindi Music which was written in the time of Firoz Shah Tagluk (758-789) upon
the request of Ibrahim Hasan, governor of
Prior to this an Arabic compilation: Fariduzaman fee marifatul ilhan, who’s topic is Iranian music was translated upon this Governors request.
The Musician Bakshu: Raja Man had advanced a
lot in Music. Dir pid had become an expert under his guidance. They were advanced
musicians in his court, some of whom were classed as masters in their field for
example the singer Bakshu, who is a Muslim and was educated by the same Raja.
The singer Bakshu after the death of Raja Man stayed with his son Raja
Bakarmajeet for a while. After that he came to Raja Keerat of Kalanjar. From
there he went to the Court of Bahadur Shah Gujarati in
1) The Lords/Sadaat of Bukhariya: These are the children of Kutbul-Alam and Hazrat Shah Alam.
2) The Lords/Sadaat of Kaadariyah: who are the children of the great saint Abdul-Qadir Jelanee, from these Sayyed Jamal Pathree, Sayyed Abdul Jalil and Sayyed Abdul-Khaliq are most famous.
3) Another famous Saadat is the one of the family Sherazi, from those is Sayyed Ahmad Jafar Sherazi and his children. Likewise Sayyed Kamaluddin Sherazi whose tomb is behind the mosque Aweena, and thirdly Sayyed Abu Turab and his children.
4) Lords: The Rifai Sadaats who are the children of Sayyed Ahmad Kabeer Rifai. From them is Abdurrahim whose tomb is outside the Fortress of Ahmadabad in Sultanpur. From his offspring is Shah Ali jee Gam Duni etc.
5) The Lords of Mashadee: From this family is Sayyed Sharfudeen Mashadee who is the son in law of Makhdoom Jahaniyah and his tomb is in Bharuch.
6) The Sadaat of Eid Ruusiyah who are the children
of Eid Rus Hazramotee. The tomb of Sayyed Sheikh Eid Ruus is in Jawharee Wara
and his Children are buried in
7) The Sadaat of Tirmizi: these are the children
of Makhdoom Sayyed Yahya Tirmizi, who was the Disciple of Makhdoom Jahaniyah,
whose tomb is situated in
8) The Sadaat of Sayyed Yakub: who are the children of Makhdum Sayyed Badr Bhakri and he also was the Disciple of Makhdum Sayyed Jahaniyah.
9) The Sadaat of Areedhe: Sayyeed Khund Meir and Sayyed Yakub are both from the Sayyed Sadaat of Areedhi, whose tomb is in PipiPur.
10) The Sadaat of Zaidiyah: Sayyed Usman Shama Burhani is from the Sadaat Zaidiyah.
It is written in Zafarulwala that
700 horsemen under the command of Muhammad Rabig Khan, 300 from the Turks under the flag of Rustum Khan, 400 under the flag of Amir Haibat Khan, 600 horsemen from the Ghauris under the flag of their leader Amin Khan, 500 from the Mughals under the flag of the Sultan, 500 from the Sadat of Bukhara under their leader and their leader was Sayyed Hamed bin Sayyed Merrah bin Sayyed Mubarak Bukhari, 4000 from the Afghan under the flag of their leader Sher Khan Faludi, and 5000 from the from all the Gujaratis who where under the flag of Ikhtiyarul-malak Sultani. There were 300 elephants, 500 copper and brass cannons and twelve thousand guns, which were with Amir bin Jahanghir and Asad Khan. Apart from them there were other Horsemen and army footmen who were not less than 100,000.
The jewels in the treasury of
It is written in Jawahir Nama, that Jewellers
state: that it is not possible to see 15 carat diamonds easily, however there
are 30-40 carat diamonds present in the treasury of
That is why King Akbar made Itimad Khan Gujarati who was the vizier of the Late sultan of Gujarat Muzaffar Shah, its treasurer.
Bahadur Shah was very famous due to his generosity; whenever it came to rewarding he would not give an amount less than 100,000. That’s why after consultation with his viziers he made a lower value Tinka, which was 21 Dokre. This was the equivalent to 1 pesa in Copper. With this amount the value of the Tinka of Bahadur Shah would be equivalent to 8 of todays. Even though it is written in Zafurwala that when Bahadur Shah conquered Chitor in 941/1534, at that time 1,000,000 old Gujarati Sika’s were equivalent to 40,000,000 of Dehli’s Sika, i.e. one Gujarati Tinka was worth 40 of Hindustani Tinka.
Tinka is equivalent to 1 tola of silver.
Sultan Sikander Ludi used to say a verse which highlighted the wealth of the Sultans of Gujarat.
Historians have praised the economic prosperity
When the Gujarati’s were defeated at the hands of the Himayun, and according to the Mughal custom the Himayun put on the bloody attire, and started killing and slaughtering indiscriminately, then Miyah Manjhu came in front of him at that very moment, and upon his request played such a musical tone, that the Himayun were speechless, and they were in awe by him. They immediately donned their red dress. After this Manjhu saved thousands of his fellow Gujarati’s by declaring them his relatives. The Himayun respected Manjhu to an extent that they became his colleague and friends, however his heart could not want for these blood thirsty Mughals and he ran away. Bahadur Shah had so much respect and admiration for Manjhu that when he reached him, Bahadur Shah said: ‘I have found you Miyah Manjhu, and it is as if I have received the Sultanate of Gujarat back.’
Until here, the history of
1) Shah Shirwani: He is the disciple of Shamsuddin
Turk Panipati whose tomb is next to the Mazang stand in
2) Sheikh Kamaluddin: he was a great relator and jurist, and also he was the greatest Disciple of Nasiruddin Chirag Dehlwi. He passed away in 1355.A.D.
3) Sheikh Raziuddin: He was the disciple of Shah
Rukn-e-Alam Multani and also the teacher of Makhdum Jahanneya Jahan Ghast, His
resting place is in Patan,
4) Jamaluddin Khandaru: A King like Giyasuddin
Taghluk was his disciple. He was in charge of the lecturing of Ahadeeth and
Jurisprudence at Ood Sharif,
5) Makhdum Jahanneya Jahan Ghast: He travelled to every corner of the globe. And took benefit spiritually of over 130 Saints of that time and also received Khilafat from them. His own disciples massed to more than quarter of a million. He gave many of his Disciples initiation, forty-two of which Allah took great service in the field of Tasawwuf, some of these are: his brother Sadruddin RajuKital, Sheikh Rajgheeri, Ilmuddin Tirmizi, Sheikh Sirajuddin, Sayyed Ashraf Jahanghir Samnani, Sayyed Sharfuddin Mashadi, etc. Saint Makhdum was extremely humble so much so that when one person named him using a prestigious title he replied that he was but a person in need. He passed away in 1382 A.D. and his tomb is in Ood Sharif.
6) Sheikh Samauddin: He was the authority of the
chain Sahaawardiyah. He made ablution in the middle of the night, and until the
morning, spent half of the time in Nawaafils, and the other half in Remembering
Allah and Zikr, then until the morning would remain in meditation. After this,
lecturing would start, in which he would give lecture on the Ahadeeth and
principles of Jurisprudence. After lecturing, the training and correction of his
disciples would start that continued until late afternoon (asr), After the late
afternoon prayer he would remain in deep meditation and thought until sundown
(Maghrib), then after The prayer of Isha he would eat and then rest. He passed
This above is a condensed example, and in this manner you will find the Biographies of upto 500 saints and great people in this book Mashaaik-e-Ahmadabad. Unfortunately I have not been able to give this great book of my beloved teacher, justice in its translation.
May Allah bring that Golden Era again in this Ummat and save us from materialistic worship.