THE NATURE OF MUHABBAT
The inclining of the heart towards something which gives it pleasure
is called muhabbat (love). Muhabbat consists of two kinds: Muhabbat -e-Tab'ee
(physical love) and Muhabbat-e- Aqlee (intellectual love). Muhabbat-e-Tab'ee
is not a voluntary or volitional condition. Its occurrence and endurance
Sometimes non-volitional acts are not lasting and are merely transitory. It is for this reason that Muhabbat-e- Tab'ee is not commanded. On the contrary, the origination and endurance of Muhabbat-e- Aqlee are volitional. It is, therefore a state which can endure. Muhabbat -e- Aqlee is thus commanded. It is this kind of Love which is superior and preferable. Since the source of physical love is emotion, it is a passing state.
THE CAUSES OF MUHABBAT
There are three factors giving rise to muhabbat;
4. IHSAAN (Kindness and favour). Ihsaan shown gives rise to muhabbat.
5. JAMAAL (Beauty). Beauty brings about attraction which gives rise to muhabbat.
6. KAMAAL (Perfection). Perfection in a thing also induces muhabbat.
These three attributes par excellence exist in only Allah Ta'ala. The muhabbat endures as long as these attributes endure. In so far as the Object of True Love (Allah Ta'ala) is concerned, these attributes are eternal. They will endure forever, hence love for Him is perpetual. Since, the existence of attributes in the state of perfection is not found independently (biz-zaat) in any being other than Allah Ta'ala, the Kaamileen (the Saints who have attained spiritual perfection) cannot have Muhabbat-e-Aqlee (Intellectual Love for anyone besides Allah Ta'ala. Muhabbat -e-Tab'ee (physical love) is possible with others, but the love which has been commanded for Allah Ta'ala is Muhabbat -e-Aqlee. The terminology of the Qur'aan and Hadith describes this form of love as Hubb. This should not be understood to mean that the Kaamileen are devoid of Muhabbat-e- Tab'ee. However, in them (the Kaamileen), Muhabbat -e- Aqlee is dominant. At times Muhabbat -e-Tab'ee in the Kaamileen exceeds the love in those in whom Muhabbat Tab'ee is dominant, but Muhabbat -e- Aqlee remains dominant Inspite of this comparative higher degree of Muhabbat -e- Tab'ee. At times, Muhabbat -e-Tab'ee becomes dominant in even the Kaamileen, but this is not frequent.
In short, the Kaamileen are perfect in both Muhabbat -e-Aqlee and Muhabbat Tab'ee, the former being dominant while in others, Muhabbat -e- Tab'ee (physical love) is dominant. Although this attribute of excellence (in the kaamileen) is not a goal in itself, it nevertheless is praiseworthy. Those devoid of both these aspects of love are in danger. Muhabbat is thus essential. Obedience without muhabbat is not sufficient since there is no resolution and firmness in such acts of obedience devoid of love.
ACQUIRING THE MUHABBAT OF ALLAH
Constant remembrance and contemplation of the Attributes and Bounties of Allah Ta'ala will induce the desired Muhabbat for Him. Compliance with the Laws of the Shari'at and much Zikr of Allah expel the love of others from the heart, making way for the exclusive Love of Allah Ta'ala.
Allah Ta'ala says:
"Those who yearn for the meeting with Allah (should take solace in the knowledge) that. verily, the Time of Allah is approaching."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"I ask of You (O Allah!) sight of Your Face and Shauq (eagerness) for meeting You."
THE NATURE OF SHAUQ
The condition of natural desire (eagerness) which is a physical state to behold and fully comprehend a beloved object whose perfection is only partially known is termed Shauq.
Shauq is the initial stage of Muhabbat. At a later stage it develops
into Uns (affection). At this stage the conditions prevailing during Shauq
do not remain. Among such conditions are profuse crying and absorption
in thought to such a degree that this condition asserts its dominance.
Some (along the journey) consider such conditions to be the goal (of the
sojourn), hence become depressed when these are reduced in the state of
Uns. However, there is no need to be concerned at this reduction in such
feelings because the goal is not the state of Shauq to be perpetual --
that one should at all times be engulfed in this state. The purpose is
eliminate natural desires neither is the purpose to create a constant throb in the heart. Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam explained the limit of Shauq in the following way:
"(O Allah !) I petition You for Shauq for meeting You; such Shauq which is devoid of hardship and which does not harm; such Shauq which is not a trial leading astray."
Sometimes excessive affection and love bring about destruction. It brings
about a disturbance in righteous acts (A'maal) which are in fact the medium
for attaining Divine Proximity. The true goal is achieved via the agency
of executing the Divine Commands. Excessive Shauq (eagerness) and 'ishq
(love) interfere with this means.
At times when Shauq is overpowering, one -transgresses the limits of respect and makes such statements which are disrespectful. Most Ush-shaaq (those immersed and lost in love) are guilty of disrespectful statements which they utter in states of ecstasy. This disrespect is harmful although such disrespect uttered in ecstasy is forgiven. But, it is not a condition of Kamaal (excellence). Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam was perfect in obedience, respect and love, hence he made the du'a mentioned above.
Shauq being a necessary corollary of Muhabbat, its acquisition is by inculcating Muhabbat of Allah Ta'ala.
THE NATURE OF UNS
Uns is a state of delight and pleasure induced by true recognition of certain known attributes of an object. In this state the object is known only partially, part of it being hidden. The known attributes on which the gaze is focused induce the condition of Uns.
Uns is also a necessary corollary of muhabbat. Its acquisition is along with Muhabbat of Allah Ta'ala.
Allah Ta'ala commands in the Qur'aan Shareef:
"And Fear Me."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"He who fears, sets off (on the journey) at night; he who sets off at night, "reaches the destination; Hark.! The merchandise of Allah is expensive. Hark.' The merchandise of Allah is Jannat."
Nature of Khauf
Khauf is the painful condition of the heart, which arises as a result of thinking of something reprehensible and the fear of it materializing. The nature of khauf consists of the possibility of 'itaab (punishment). This possibility extends to every person, for he may be overtaken by 'itaab. This is the extent of khauf which has been commanded and imposed upon the servant. This extent, viz. fearing the possibility of 'itaab, is a compulsory condition (shart) of Imaan. It is also known as khauf-e-Aqlee (intellectual fear). At the behest of sin this faculty (khauf-e-Aqlee) has to be put into operation. The warnings and punishments of Allah Ta'ala should be recalled and ruminated over so as to be saved from sin. This degree of khauf is Fardh (compulsory). Its non-existence induces and involves one in sin. It is the medium of exhorting towards virtue and steering one away from sin.
Allah Ta'ala has combined the noble attributes of Hidaa'yat (guidance from Allah), Rahmat (mercy), ilm (knowledge) and Ridhaa (contentment) for those who are imbued with the khauf of Allah Ta'ala. All beings fear the one who fears Allah Ta'ala. Allah Ta'ala has stated that in the servant, two fears will not combine. This means that the servant of Allah, who on earth entertains the khauf of Allah Ta'ala, will be fearless in the Aakhirat; and, he who had no khauf of Allah Ta'ala on earth, will be overtaken by fear and calamity. In this regard, Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"On the Day of Qiyamat every eye will be crying excepting the eye which refrained from gazing at that which Allah Ta'ala had forbidden, and the eye which stood guard in the Path of Allah, and the eye from which emerged a tear-drop equal in size to the head of a fly, in fear of Allah Ta'ala."
In a hadith of Mishkaat Shareef it is said that Allah will make haraam (unlawful) the fire of Jahannam for such a person. In the hadith it is also stated that on the Day of Qiyamat, Allah Ta'ala will proclaim to the Malaa'ikah to remove from the Fire anyone who had at any time or occasion feared Allah.
Fear is thus incumbent for every Mu'min. There are two reasons for this need.
The possibility of one committing voluntarily an act of disobedience in the future.
The possibility of some act of disobedience having been voluntarily committed, but due to negligence one's attention has been diverted therefrom. Such diversion is also a voluntary act of disobedience.
It is a fact that the robber because of the fear of being apprehended abstains from robbery; the child because of the fear of punishment abstains from mischief; because of the fear of being fined people refrain from violation of law. When fear is effaced, anarchy is the consequence in the land. Khauf severs the roots of all evil while at the same time it is the medium of all obedience.
The manner in which to acquire the khauf of Allah Ta'ala is to meditate of his Wrath and 'Itaab.
Allah Ta'ala says:
"Do not despair of the Rahmat of Allah..."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"If even the Kaafir realises the extent of Allah's Rahmat (mercy), he (too) will not loose hope of Jannat."
Nature of Rajaa
Rajaa is the state of the heart's tranquillity which develops as a result of one's yearning for the desirable objects of fazl (Divine Grace), Maghfirat (forgiveness), Ni'mat (Bounty) and Jannat, while devising ways and means for their attainment. Thus one who remains in expectation of Rahmat and Jannat, but does not adopt the means of their acquisition, viz., a'maal-e- Saalih (righteous deeds), taubah (repentance), etc., will not attain the goal of Rajaa. He remains on the contrary in deception. He is like the one who Inspite of not sowing the seeds, expect p to reap the crop. He dwells in empty desire. The manner of acquiring Rajaa is to reflect about the vastness of Allah's Rahmat and His Magnificence.
Allah Ta'ala states:
"... So that you do not grieve over what you have lost nor become proud over what you have."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"The first virtue of this Ummat is Yaqeen (firm faith) and zuhd, and the first corruption of this Ummat is Bukhl (niggardliness) and amal (distant and remote hopes)."
Nature of Zuhd
Zuhd is to refrain from an object of desire in the pursuit of a nobler objective, e.g. refraining from the desire of the world and pursuing the desire of the Aakhirat. This is Zuhd.
The basis of Zuhd is the Noor and ilm which Allah Ta'ala inspires into the heart of man. As a result, his breast expands and he realises with clarity that the world with all its belongings is more contemptible than the wing of a fly and that only Aakhirat is noble and everlasting. When this Noor is acquired, the -worthlessness of the world fully dawns upon man. The effect of Zuhd is the attainment of contentment upon the obtainal of the bare necessities of life. Thus the Zahid (the one who has Zuhd) is satisfied with the bare necessities in the same way as the traveller is satisfied with the necessities which he takes along on his sojourn.
Zuhd is not abstention from pleasures. Reduction of pleasures is sufficient
for the attribute of Zuhd. In other words. one should not be engrossed
Constantly hankering after luxuries is negatory of Zuhd. On the contrary, obtainal of luxuries without undue effort and arrangement is the Ni'mat of Allah Ta'ala, for which shukr (gratefulness) has to be offered. Along with granting comfort to the nafs, effort too should be imposed on it.
In all truth, gold and silver and the world with all its possessions, in the sight of one whose gaze is focused on Allah, are of no value. Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam never preferred the world for himself nor for those close to him. Whatever creation possesses is the material of the world. It is essential to sever one's hope from all things. He who is successful in this objective, will attain tranquillity, because both heart and body find rest and peace in Zuhd.
The manner in which to acquire Zuhd is to meditate on the defects, harms and ephemeral nature of the world, as well as to reflect on the benefits and the everlasting nature of the Aakhirat.
Allah Ta'ala says:
"Upon Allah should the Believers have Tawakkul (trust)."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"When you ask, ask of Allah and when you seek aid, seek from Allah ."
THE NATURE OF TAWAKKUL
Reposing implicit trust of the heart in only the Creator is called tawakkul.
The meaning of tawakkul is expressed by the term taukeel (to make or appoint a wakeel or a counselor, agent, representative). When one lacks the understanding and ability for something then another is appointed to execute the task. Such appointment of an agent to act on one's behalf is the meaning of taukeel. Tawakkul then is to act in accordance with Allah's Scheme i.e. to adopt the principles and laws of the Shari'at, and to resign one's self unto Him. In every act or task, the means required for the task will be employed within the confines of the Shari'at and one's trust will be placed in Allah Ta'ala.
THE FUNDAMENTALS (ARKAAN) OF TAWAKKUL
Tawakkul has three fundamental principles: Ma'rifat, Haalat and Amal.
This consists of Tauheed of Allah Ta'ala which means: Besides Allah there is no object of worship; He is Incomparable; He has no partner; All sovereignty belongs to Him ; All praise and glory belongs to Him; He has power over all things. This conception of Tauheed acknowledges that Allah Ta'ala possesses such perfect power and wisdom which make Him worthy of all praise and glory,. Sincere and honest belief in this conception of Tauheed grounds true Imaan in the heart. The effect of Imaan grounding itself in the heart is Tawakkul. The condition essential for achieving this tawakkul is sincere acknowledgment of Tauheed. The meaning of sincere acknowledgment is that this Tauheed pervades the heart so much that there remains no room in one's heart to entertain any other concept.
The Hal of Tawakkul is to resign oneself to Allah Ta'ala. Assign all affairs to Him and maintain the heart in the state of peace and tranquillity. It envisages diversion from all and everything other than Allah Ta'ala. Upon Allah Ta'ala being made the Wakeel one resigns in full confidence. Allah Ta'ala, the Wakeel is full of Wisdom and is the Benefactor and Protector of the one who has reposed tawakkul in him. There is therefore co no need for the heart to toss in doubt and uncertainty. He will not allow your enemy to vanquish you. In this way when one fully realizes that rizqu·(sustenance), maut (death), hayaat (life) and all affairs of creation are within the direct power and control of Allah Ta'ala, then there is absolutely no cause for the heart to labour in uncertainty and suffer any lack of confidence.
The ignorant labour under the misconception that Tawakkul entails abstention
from effort, the means and material agencies. This idea of tawakkul is
Tawakkul does not advocate shunning or abstaining from the material agencies which Allah Ta'ala has created and made subservient to man. Shunning the legitimate use of the material means and agencies for legitimate purposes and needs is not lawful according to the Shari'at.
The way in which to acquire Tawakkul is by contemplating the bounties of Allah Ta'ala, His Promises and one's past success.
Qanaa'at or contentment means in this regard abstention from desires. Contemplating about the transitory and perishable nature of the world inculcate Qanaa'at.
Hilm or perseverance means to hold in check the nafs in the face of
events which are distasteful to one. This quality of Hilm is acquired by
the eradication of anger.
One has to contemplate constantly about the remedies for anger. This will be explained in the chapter on Akhlaq-e-Razeelah (The Despicable Attributes).
Allah Ta'ala says:
"O People of Imaan.' Adopt sabr (patience)."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"A Believer is to be marveled because every condition of his is good. This is exclusive to the Believer. If he attains happiness, he makes shukr (is thankful) and if calamity overtakes him, he adopts sabr."
NATURE OF SABR
In man are two conflicting forces. The one force impels him towards Deen and righteousness while the other drives him towards base desires. Asserting the Deeni force and subduing the force of lust is called Sabr. In the state of Sabr, the Deeni force in man asserts its dominance over the lowly force of base desire. Its definition is given as follows:
"Maintaining control of the nafs in the face of such things which the nafs dislikes."
THE TYPES OF SABR
There are three kinds of Sabr.
1. SABR ALAL AMAL
2. SABR FIL AMAL
3. SABR ANIL AMAL
NI'MAT AND MUSEEBAT
SABR ALAL AMAL
This means to be firm and constant in practising righteous deeds.
SABR FIL AMAL
This means to have sabr while engaging in the righteous deed. The nafs is held in control and prevented from diversion while engaged in the act of virtue. Acts of Ibaadat have to be discharged adequately by the observance of the principles and rules pertaining to such acts. Full attention has to be directed towards the act.
SABR ANIL AMAL
This means to have sabr in the non-commission of any act or to restrain the Nafs from indulging in the prohibitions of Allah Ta'ala.
NI'MAT AND MUSEEBAT
Ni'mat (fortune, favour, blessing) produces delight and happiness which in turn result in muhabbat (love) for Allah, The Benefactor. On the contrary museebat (difficulty, hardship, calamity) produces unpleasantness and grief. Thus the occasion of sabr is in the face of museebat. Museebat is the condition detested by the nafs. This condition is of two kinds, viz. 1. the form of hardship, and 2. true hardship.
Grief and frustration follow in the wake of true hardship which is the consequence of- sin. Hardship which brings about the strengthening of one's bond with Allah and elevates one's spiritual condition is not true hardship. It is merely a resemblance or form of hardship. It increases one's submission to Allah Ta'ala. The Aarifeen do perceive hardship. In fact their sense of perception is sharper, but due to their gaze being on Allah Ta'ala their grief and sorrow do not exceed the limits;
Difficulties are a means for the expiation of many sins. At times Allah Ta'ala' wishes to bestow a special rank of elevation to a servant, but the latter lacks the ability to attain that lofty rank solely by virtue of his righteous deeds. Allah Ta'ala then afflicts him with some hardship by virtue of which he attains the desired lofty rank. It appears in the Hadith Shareef that on the Day of Qiyaamat the people of Ni'mat (fortune and happiness) will envy those who had undergone museebat (hardship and sorrow). They will envy them and wish:
"Would that our skins were cut to bits with scissors so that today we could have attained the ranks bestowed to the people of hardship."
It is also narrated in the Hadeeth Shareef that he who takes his vengeance,
Allah Ta'ala assigns his affair to him (the one who took his own course).
But the one who adopts sabr, Allah Ta'ala extracts vengeance on his behalf.
Allah then sometimes awards him in this world, or may in Qiyaamat waive
punishment totally from him.
Allah Ta'ala states in the Qur'aan Shareef:
"When a hardship afflicts you, say: innalillahi wa inna ilayhi raaji'oon (Verily, we are for Allah and unto Him will we return)."
The purport of this aayat is that one should engage in the zikr of innalillahi
wa inna ilayhi raaji'oon
at the time of difficulty and hardship. One should meditate the meaning of this statement, that we are the exclusive property of Allah; we belong to Him and He has the full right to utilize and dispose of His property as He deems fit; we are therefore, contented with the decree of Allah.
When hardship afflicts one, firstly remember one's sins. Such remembrance
of shortcomings and faults will fortify one against depression during the
hardship. One will then realize the correctness of the affliction and accept
it without complaint. One will regret and not complain. Secondly, meditate
the reward which Allah has promised for hardship. Remembering this reward
will lessen the grief and keep one resolute in the state of hardship. Never
complain nor entertain the impression that Allah Ta'ala has become displeased
with one. This impression is dangerous because it weakens the bond with
Allah Ta'ala and by degrees one's relationship with
Allah Ta'ala becomes effaced.
Consider hardship as either a punishment or a trial and contemplate its reward. At the time of hardship, the Shari'at instructs sabr and firmness. For every hardship, the compensation will be good. There is, most assuredly, benefit in hardship, in this world as well as in the Aakhirat although one may not be able to understand the worldly benefit therein.
Sabr is inculcated by weakening the desires of lust and emotion.
Allah Ta'ala says:
"Be grateful unto Me."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"If happiness reaches him (the believer), he is grateful."
THE NATURE OF SHUKR
Accepting that all benefit is from the True Benefactor (Mun'im-e- Haqeeqee), the effect of which is to be happy with the Benefactor and be ever ready to render obedience to Him, is the meaning of Shukr. The meaning of Shukr envisages: Acceptance of the fact that all benefit is from Allah, the True Benefactor (Mun'im -e-Haqeeqee). This acceptance induces:
1. Happiness with the Benefactor.
2. Eagerness to execute the commands of the Benefactor and to abstain from his prohibitions. One should consider all benefit, goodness and pleasant conditions as the bounties of Allah and regard these to be in greater measure than what one really deserves. Praise is to be offered to Allah and His bounties should not be employed in evil and sin. His favours should be used in obtaining His Pleasure. This is the true meaning of Shukr.
This conception of Shukr will be comprehended only when one has realized the purpose underlying creation and the functions of the various aspects of creation. For instance, the eye is a Ni'mat of Allah Ta'ala. Its shukr is to employ it correctly--to employ it in only lawful avenues, e.g. making Tilaawat of the Qur'aan Majeed, acquiring knowledge, studying the wonderful creation of Allah so as to gain lesson and realize the greatness and Splendour of Allah Ta'ala, etc. The shukr of the eye further demands that it be restrained from glancing at and viewing objects which Allah Ta'ala has prohibited. Similarly, the ear is a Ni'mat. Its shukr is to employ it correctly, e.g. in listening to the Zikr of Allah, to such talks which remind one of the Aakhirat, and to prevent it from listening to evil, nonsensical and futile talk. The tongue is a Ni'mat. Its shukr is to employ it in Zikr, in expressing hamd, thanaa and shukr of Allah, and to restrain it from complaining in adversity and from all evil generally. It is highly inappropriate and sinful for such a worthless slave as man to complain about any condition which Allah Ta'ala, the True King, has imposed on him. A word of shukr emanating from the tongue is recorded as an act of obedience.
Mere expression of shukr with the tongue unaccompanied by the true state of shukr of the heart is only lip-service. It is essential that along with verbal expression of shukr, the heart should value and honour the Ni'mat of The Benefactor. Mere verbal shukr will be like the outer-casing, like the outer-covering which is its external form. The rooh (soul and essence) of shukr is that the honour and appreciation of the Mun'im (Benefactor) and the Ni'mat (the bounty) are ingrained in the heart.
The initial stage of shukr is at the intellectual level. In other words, it is the correct understanding of the true meaning of shukr and the realization of the honour of the Benefactor. The final stage of shukr is the manifestation of its effect on one's body, movements and all states. In short, all the beliefs, acts of worship, mundane acts, moral and social life of the shaakir (the one who is truly grateful to Allah) will be in conformity with the Shari'at.
Shukr is acquired by contemplating the bounties of Allah Ta'ala. Every Ni'mat is to be related to Him. By degrees such meditation will imbue the Love of Allah in the heart, the result of which will be the attainment of the perfect stage of Shukr.
Allah Ta'ala says:
"Verily, the Mu'mineen (Believers) are those who believe in Allah, arid His Rasul. Thereafter they have no doubt and they strive in the Path of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Assuredly, they are the Saadiqoon (the truthful ones)."
The following is narrated in the Hadith Shareef:
"Nabi Sallallahu alayhi wasallam passed by Abu Bakr (Radhiyallahu Anhu) while he was cursing some of his slaves. Rasulullah it turned towards him and said:
'People who curse and people who are truthful!"
Abu Bakr (Radhiyallahu Anhu) said: 'I will not repeat it."
THE NATURE OF SIDQ
The nature of Sidq consists of developing a rank acquired until it attains
perfection. The meaning of Sidq is firmness. It is for this reason that
a Waliyy-e-Kaamil (a saint who has attained spiritual perfection) is called
a Siddeeque. In all ahwaal (states), af'aal (acts) and aqwaal (statements)
the Waliyy-e-Kaamil has been well-grounded. He has realized the state of
perfection. In the Shari'at, the conception of Sidq includes af'aal (actions),
aqwaal (statements) and ahwaal (states and
conditions). Sidq in regard to statements is that talk should be firm and true according to reality. One imbued with this quality is called Saadiq-ul Aqwaal. Sidq in regard to actions is that every act be in conformity with the Command of the Shari'at and not in conflict with the Shari'at. One whose acts are at all times in conformity with the Shari'at is termed Saadiq-ul Af'aal. Sidq in regard to one's state or condition is that all conditions should be in accordance with the Sunnat.
Conditions which are in conflict with the Sunnat are false. One whose states are in accordance with the Sunnat is called Saadiq-ul Ahwaal.
The states (ahwaal) of Sidq are such that their effect is enduring.
The influence of the states of Sidq are lasting and dominant. They are
not of a temporary nature.
This does nor mean that such ahwaal exist over one perpetually. It is the effect or influence (aasar) of these states of Sidq which lasts and does not disappear.
The summary of what has been explained is that one should develop the acts of Ibaadat or obedience to the stage of perfection. For example, perform Salaat in such a way that it could be described in the Shari'at as Salaat-e-Kaamilah (perfect Salaat), i.e. a Salaat performed observing all the external rules and respects (Aadaab-e-Zaahirah) and all the internal rules and respects (Aadaab-e-Baatinah). The same should apply to all other acts of obedience and Ibaadat. They should be rendered in the Kaamil (perfect) way shown by the Shari'at. The adoption of this way is Sidq.
Sidq is dependant upon the knowledge of the factors which produces perfection.
One has, therefore, to be alert at all times and compensate for one's shortcomings.
An endeavour is to be made to rectify imperfectly performed obligations. Constancy in improving and perfecting one's acts will ensure within a short while the perfect state of Sidq.
Allah Ta'ala says:
"I assign my affair to Allah. Verily He sees all (His) servants."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"When you arise in the morning do not contemplate in your heart about the evening, and when it is evening do not contemplate about the morning."
THE NATURE OF TAF'WEEZ
Taf'weez is to assign oneself to Allah Ta'ala. He may do with one as He desires. One's gaze and hope should be on none besides Allah. While employing the means and the agencies the result of all things should be left to Allah Ta'ala.
Taf'weez does not mean shunning the means and the agencies which Allah Ta'ala has created for the acquisition and rendering of affairs. It merely means that one's confidence and hope should be on none besides Allah Ta'ala. The result of the employment of the means and agencies should be left to Allah Ta'ala. In affairs not related to means and agencies, Taf'weez should be adopted from the very beginning. In such matters one should not adopt taj'weez (plan and scheme).
Taj'weez (to plan, scheme and programme) is the cause for all worry, because of it being expected that the operation of a project planned should proceed along the set plan and programme arranged for it. If the result is contrary to expectation, worry and frustration are the consequence. The schemes initiated by man mostly consist of matters not within the control of his volition. It is therefor puerile to scheme about things not within one's volition. It is for this reason that the Ahlullaah (the Auliyaa) shun taj'weez. They resign themselves entirely unto Allah Ta'ala and submit to the Pleasure of Allah Ta'ala.
It is necessary to abandon one's own scheme of operation and resign oneself to Allah. This applies to even the development of one's spiritual condition. In trodding the spiritual path of development one should not initiate one's own scheme. Assign everything to Him. Bestowal or the elimination of Haalaat and Kaifiyyaat (spiritual conditions) should be assigned to Him. The seeker of Allah should annihilate his taj'weez in the Tajweez of Allah Ta'ala. In other words, he has to adopt total and perfect Abdiyyat (submission and serfdom---being a total slave of Allah Ta'ala).
THE WAY OF ACQUIRING TAF'WEEZ
When being confronted with an event which is in conflict with one's liking then immediately think that it is an act of Allah and most assuredly there is wisdom and goodness in it. In the beginning it will be difficult to acquire this attitude. However, constant reflection produces the annihilation of effort and then this attitude assumes a natural condition in the Ahlullaah (the Auliyaa).
Allah Ta'ala says:
"Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"Of the good fortune of man is his pleasure with that which Allah has ordained for him."
THE NATURE OF RIDHAA
This consists of total submission and pleasure with qadhaa (fate). One should neither by word or deed object against fate.
Ridhaa develops to such a lofty degree that its domination permeates one's being. In this high state of Ridhaa hardship recedes and is not considered as such. The state of Ridhaa in which even pain is not felt is called Ridhaa-e-tab'ee (natural Ridhaa). The state in which Ridhaa prevails along with the sensation of pain is called Ridhaa-e-aqlee (intellectual Ridhaa).
The first state (Ridhaa-e-tab'ee) is a physical condition, the acquisition of which is not incumbent. The second state (Ridhaa-e-aqlee) is an intellectual condition, the acquisition of which is incumbent.
Ridhaa with fate is commanded and exhorted so as to inculcate in one
the qualities of Perseverance and contentment when afflicted by adversity
and hardship. When Ridhaa has been inculcated adversity will be taken in
its stride with contentment and without feeling any undue hardship. This
is so because the intelligence alerts one to the superior results of such
Ridhaa in the face of adversity. The result of such Ridhaa is future thawaab
(reward). This will be better understood by means of an illustration. A
physician prescribes a bitter remedy to a patient or may even insist on
an operation. The patient bears in mind his future recovery and health,
willingly submits to the treatment. He is not only pleased with the physician but feels indebted to him.
Similarly he who firmly believes that Allah Ta'ala will grant thawaab for every difficulty and sorrow experienced here, will most certainly be imbued with pleasure and happiness. The thawaab for such Ridhaa is of such a nature that all difficulty wanes into nothingness. It is improper to desire anything contrary to that which Allah Ta'ala has willed and ordained for the servant. When Allah Ta'ala considers adversity and difficulty appropriate and advantageous for us, then we as His servants have no valid reason for dissatisfaction and sorrow.
Whatever state Allah Ta'ala chooses for a servant, that is best for him. Man seeing another in a more prosperous condition than himself yearns for such prosperity and is not contented with his own lot. But, reflection will convince one that the condition chosen for one by Allah Ta'ala is best.
It should be observed that making du'aa is not contrary to Ridhaa. Ahlullaah (Saints of Allah) resort to du'aa merely because of the Divine Command. In this way they profess their Abdiyyat (state of total submission and slavery to Allah). They therefore do no insist on the attainment of what is being supplicated for. In all states and circumstances they are fully pleased with the Choice of Allah Ta'ala whether their du'a is accepted or not. Non-acceptance never induces in them dissatisfaction. This then is the sign of Ridhaa.
ACQUISITION OF RIDHAA
Ridhaa is the effect of muhabbat (Love for Allah). 'there is therefore no separate means of acquiring this quality. Ridhaa is a necessary corollary of muhabbat.
NATURE OF FANAA
The nature of fanaa consists of the elimination of evil deeds and lowly attributes of the flesh. In other words, fanaa is abstention from sin and the expulsion from the heart of all love other than the Divine Love; expulsion of greed, lust, desire, vanity, show, etc. In the state of fanaa the reality of the true and only relationship asserts itself in the mind. One realizes and feeds that the only real relationship is with Allah Ta'ala.
ACQUISITION OF FANAA
This lofty state of fanaa is attainable by mujaahidah and Zikr in abundance-- Zikr by means of both the tongue and heart.
FANAA-UL-FANAA (ANNIHILATION OF ANNIHILATION)
At times the Saalik becomes oblivious of his state of fanaa. This unawareness is termed fanaa-ul-fanaa. This state is also known as Baqaa (perpetuity). In this state the realization of one's condition of selflessness disappears.
The annihilation of human qualities is also called Qurb-e-Nawaafil and the annihilation of that (self ego) is described as Qurb-e-Faraaidh, i.e. the disappearance of awareness of others.
The development of righteous deeds into one's natural disposition and the perfection of the lofty attributes (Akhlaaq-e-Hameedah) are also termed Baqaa.
The state of fanaa-ul-fanaa is realized by abundance of Zikr (remembrance of Allah) and Fikr (contemplation) done with constancy.
(THE LOWLY AND DESPICABLE ATTRIBUTES)
Allah Ta'ala says:
"Do not raise your eyes towards the glitter of the worldly life which We have granted to various groups among them (Kuffaar)."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"The son of Aadam ages while two things of his grow younger, viz., greed for wealth and greed for (longer) life,"
THE NATURE OF HIRS
The engrossment of the heart with wealth, etc. is Hirs. Hirs is the
root of all spiritual ailments. It is, therefore, proper to describe it
as the mother of all maladies. All
mischief and strife are the consequences of this lowly attribute. It is because of Hirs that people plunder and usurp the rights of others. The basis of immorality is the
lust for bestial pleasure. The root of all Akhlaaq-e-Razeelah is this very Hirs.
All the Aarifeen (Auliyaa of Allah) maintain that the foundation of
Akhlaaq-e-Razeelah is Kibr (pride) and Kibr is synonymous with the desire
for fame. Thus, the
basis of Kibr too is Hirs.
If man possesses two valleys filled with gold and silver, by nature
he will desire a third. The more the demands of greed are satisfied, the
greater will be its demands.
Greed is like one afflicted with rash. The more he scratches, the worse the rash becomes. Allah Ta'ala says:
"What! Is there for man everything he desires?"
In other words, it is not possible for man to fulfill all his desires.
It is for this reason that the Harees (the one who has greed) has no peace
of mind. Nothing besides
soil (i.e. the grave) can satiate his greed. Before a wish can attain fulfillment, another develops. When one is not contented with Taqdeer, one is smitten by a
multitude of desires and hopes, the fulfillment of which is most difficult. The result of non-fulfillment of desire is frustration and worry. The Harees Inspite of perhaps
possessing wealth in abundance and enjoying luxury, is perpetually afflicted with frustration.
Reduce expenditure. This will diminish concern and yearning for more earnings. Forget about the future and bear in mind that the Harees always is contemptible.
Allah Ta'ala says:
"Follow not desire, for it will lead you astray, away from the Path of Allah."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"A weakling is one who follows his desire and then has hopes on Allah (for reward)."
Desire means preference for things which conflict with the Shari'ah.
The highest degree of such desire is Kufr and shirk. The lowest degree
is diversion from perfect
obedience. Straying from Siraat-ul -Mustaqeem (the Straight Path) is common to all forms of Tamaa'.
The remedy for Tamaa' is mujaahidah-- to accustom oneself to oppose
the desires of the lowly nafs so that the carnal and material desires of
the lowly nafs are
subordinated to the Pleasure of Allah Ta'ala. Mujaahidah is to exercise restraint on the demands of the nafs irrespective if such restraint is simple or difficult.
Allah Ta'ala says:
"And those who swallow anger and those who forgive people, Allah loves the righteous."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"Do not become wrathful."
"A powerful man is not one who defeats (another) in physical combat. Verily, a powerful man is he who controls his nafs at the time of anger."
In another narration it appears that a strong man is he who controls
anger. It is essential to keep anger under control. One should never act
accordance with the dictates of anger. On the contrary, anger should be made subservient to the instruction of the Shari'ah. It is natural to be aroused in the state of
anger. Such natural propensity is not rebukeable. But, Allah Ta'ala has endowed man with volition (Ikhtiyaar-- will-power). Anger has therefore to be controlled
since it is within the scope of man's volition to do so. Failure to exercise this volitional power is contrary to Insaaniyyat (humanity).
There are many reasons for the inclusion of anger in the natural attributes
of man. Along with the quality of anger Allah Ta'ala has endowed man with
the ability to
control such anger to ensure that the latter is not misappropriated and unjustly employed.
Ghussah in itself comes into (notion involuntarily. It is automatically
activated. But, acting in accordance with its demand is voluntary, hence
refraining from it is
likewise voluntary. The remedy for a volitional act (the way of curbing it) is nothing other than the exercise of one's volitional power to bring about restraint and
control. This is within one's ability even if one experiences a degree of difficulty in the exercise of such volition. Repeated exercise of the volition of restraint weakens
the demand of anger. In consequence, refraining from anger becomes a relatively simple task.
The following narration appears in the hadith Shareef:
"The Qaadhee should not decide between two parties while in anger."
The judge or the ruler is not permitted to issue a verdict while in
anger, but should postpone the trial or case for a later date. The term,
Qaadhee in the context of this
hadith applies to every person having authority over people. The instructor, teacher and head of a family all fall within the purview of this hadith. They should not be
hasty in meting our punishment to their subordinates while in the state of anger.
Those in authority should remember that Allah Ta'ala is the defender
of the rights of those who have no defender. Allah Ta'ala will demand from
the aggressor the
rights of the oppressed. According to the Hadith Shareef, Allah Ta'ala and Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam will claim from The tyrannical ruler the rights which
he usurped even from his non-Muslim subjects. It is therefore imperative to exercise caution when punishing.
In cases of injustice executed in the stated of anger, it is essential
that the aggressor, after his anger has subsided, publicly apologize and
humble himself in the
presence of the one whom he has wronged. The aggressor should personally apologize in profusion and seek the pardon of the one whom he had wronged. This
measure will restore the intelligence of the aggressor to equilibrium. He will thus be prevented from the perpetration of injustice at the behest of anger.
At all times refrain from haste. One has to strive greatly in opposing
the dictates of anger. Whenever one succumbs, resort to Istighfaar and
obtain the pardon of the
one whose rights have been violated. Recite:
when overtaken by anger; sit down if you happen to be standing; if you happen to be sitting then lay down. Make wudhu with cold water or drink cold water. Divert
your attention by immediately engaging in some other activity, especially reading which is very efficacious in curbing anger. If all this fail to eliminate the anger,
withdraw from the presence of the one who is the target of your anger.
Remember that Allah Ta'ala has greater power and authority over you and that you are also disobedient to Him. Should he also adopt the attitude of Wrath with you, what will be your condition? Also reflect that nothing can happen without the Will of Allah Ta'ala. Ponder then:
Of what worth am I? I am an absolute none-entity.
How can I then act in conflict with Allah Ta'ala?
Allah Ta'ala says:
"Refrain from false statements."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"Make truth incumbent on you and beware of falsehood."
Falsehood is to speak contrary to facts. For a person to be regarded
as a liar it will suffice that he narrates every rumour without investigating
whether it is a fact or
not. Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam ordered abstention from lies because falsehood and immorality are complementary partners and both will be in Jahannam.
Nabi Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said that false evidence is equivalent to shirk.
In a vision Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam was shown a man whose
cheeks were being repeatedly slit from ear to throat. The cheeks would
upon having been slit and the process of slitting would be repeated. Upon inquiring, Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam was informed by Jibra'eel (Alayhis
Salaam)that the one who was being thus punished was a liar and this punishment will continue in the grave until Qiyaamah.
In another hadith it is narrated that a woman called her child. To entice
the child in coming to her she indicated to the child that if he came,
she would give him
something. Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam asked her that if the child came, what would she give him? She replied that she would give dates. Rasulullah
Sallallahu alayhi wasallam then commented that if she had no intention of giving the child anything, her statement merely being to lure the child to her, then such
statement is also a lie.
When speaking, be careful. Do not speak without thinking. Ponder before
you speak and be firm in confronting and curbing the urge to speak what
is false. If
falsehood was spoken then compensate this error by means of Istighfaar. Should any word contrary to the Shariah slip from your mouth, resort to Taubah in
Allah Ta'ala says:
"(Say) I seek refuge with the Rabb of the morning from the evil of the Haasid (jealous person) when he envies."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"Do not be jealous among yourselves."
To be displeased with another' s good position and to wish for its elimination is Hasad. Hasad has three stages.
1. The natural human quality. In this degree of Hasad, man is excused and is not at fault.
2. Acting according to the demands of Hasad. In this degree of commission, man is a sinner.
3. Opposing the demands of Hasad. In this degree, man is laudable and will be rewarded.
Generally the basis of Hasad is takabbur (pride)
and Ghuroor (falsehood). Without any valid reason man seeks to withhold
the bounties of Allah Ta'ala. He desires
(at times consciously and at times subconsciously) that like himself, Allah too should restrict His bounties. Hasad is a malady of the heart. It is harmful to both one's
spiritual life and worldly life. The harm to man's Deen (spiritual life) is the illumination of his good deeds and he becomes the victim of Allah's Wrath. Rasulullah
Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"Jealousy devours good deeds like fire devours wood."
The harm to his worldly life (dunyaa) is the frustration and worry which
perpetually afflicts the envious person. He is consumed by frustration
caused by Hasad for
another whose disgrace and fall he always anticipates. In this way the Haasid destroys his Aakhirat in addition to eliminating his worldly comfort and peace of mind.
The disease of Hasad is remedied by praising much the person against
whom jealousy is directed. Praise them no matter how difficult this may
seem. Honour them and
meet him or her with respect and humility.
Allah Ta'ala says:
"He who is miserly is in fact miserly because of his nafs."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"The miser is far from Allah, far from Jannat, far from people and close to the Fire."
Bukhl is to withhold spending when such spending is necessary according to the Shariat and in order to be kind. Bukhl has two stages:
1. Contrary to the order of the Shari'ah. This stage is sinful.
2. Contrary to kindness (Murawwat). This degree of Bukhl although not sinful is not good. Elimination of even this degree of Bukhl is commendable and meritorious.
According to the Hadith Shareef wealth spent to protect one's honour is also sadaqah (charity). Bukhl is a severe malady, hence Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam exhorted:
"Save yourself from Bukhl, for it has destroyed nations before you"
It does not, therefore, behoove a Muslim to be miserly. In being stingy
one is paving the path to Jahannam. Bukhl in reality
is the effect of love for wealth which
directs man's attention to the world. The consequence of this is the weakening of the bond of love with Allah Ta'ala. At the time of death the miser looks on his
wealth with regret and sorrow. He has to embark on his journey into the Aakhirah reluctantly and forcibly because in him there is no desire to meet Allah Ta'ala.
According to the Hadith, the one who at death has no desire to meet Allah Ta'ala is a Jahannami (one who will enter Jahannam).
Remembrance of maut (death) in abundance expels the love of wealth from the heart.
Allah Ta'ala says:
"They display to people (their acts of Ibaadat)."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"Most certainly, even a little riyaa is Shirk."
Riyaa is the intention to enhance one's dignity in the eyes of the people
by means of acts of obedience to Allah Ta'ala. This attitude totally defeats
the purpose of
Ibaadat. The purpose of Ibaadat is to gain the Pleasure of Allah Ta'ala. Since show or display of Ibaadat involves division of purpose, riyaa is termed shirk-e-asghar
(the lesser shirk). By means of riyaa one splits the purpose of lbaadat by endeavouring to attain both public acclaim as well as the Pleasure of Allah Ta'ala. In this
regard the Qur'aan Shareef says:
"He who hopes for the meeting with His Rabb should practise righteousness and associate none with the Ibaadat of his Rabb."
The Mufassireen have explained that the meaning of
"and associate none with the Ibaadat of his Rabb" is "to refrain from riyaa".
Qadhi Thanaa-ullah explained this aayat in Tafseer-ul Mazhari as follows:
"He (the worshipper) does not exhibit his good acts nor does he seek reward or praise for his virtuous deeds from anyone besides Allah Ta'ala."
It is also mentioned in the Hadith Shareef that on the Day of Qiyaamah
when Allah Ta'ala will be compensating people for their deeds, the people
of riyaa will be
commanded to proceed for reward to those for whom they had intended the exhibition of their acts of Ibaadat. In a lengthy Hadith it is said that on the Day of
Qiyaamah three persons will be ushered into the presence of Allah Ta'ala. These three will be an Aalim, a generous person and a Mujaahid who had waged jihaad.
These three will proffer their respective acts of Ibaadat to Allah Ta'ala Who will say to them:
"You have rendered these deeds for riyaa and acclaim. You rendered these
acts so that people may say: 'You are a great Aalim, a generous person
and a great
Mujaahid. 'You have already obtained what you had sought. People have already praised you on earth. You have therefore no right here. Enter the Fire."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam also said that a deed contaminated
by even an atom of riyaa is unacceptable to Allah Ta'ala. Heed this and
reflect! In view of
the afore-going, never intend to display any act nor intend to conceal it. Concern yourself with the act itself, intending thereby only the Pleasure of Allah Ta'ala.
Ignore all diversionary waswasah (stray thoughts and whisperings of the nafs and shaitaan) which enter your mind. You may at times be assaulted by the thought that
your act is to obtain the acclaim of the people. Ignore this waswasah which in fact is a ploy of shaitaan or the nafs engineered to side-track you from executing the
Prior to rendering a good deed, reflect and ascertain your motive. What
is your intention for doing the act? Is it to seek the Pleasure of Allah
Ta'ala or the pleasure of others? If you discern any of the contamination
in your niyyat, then purify your intention. Divest it of the contamination
and firmly resolve to render the deed for the
Pleasure of Allah Ta'ala.
The cure for riyaa is the expulsion from the heart of the desire for
fame and name. Riyaa in fact is a branch of hubb-e-jah (love for name,
fame and glory). Execute
your acts of lbaadat in solitude. This Ibaadat in solitude refers to such Ibaadat which does not have to be performed in jama'at. However, regarding congregational
Ibaadat the elimination of hubb-e-jah will be sufficient to combat riyaa in this avenue. Another efficacious remedy regarding riyaa developing in an act of Ibaadat is to
render that specific act of Ibaadat in abundance. Within a short while the riyaa will be dispelled and by force of habit the Ibaadat will become sincere.
Allah Ta'ala says:
"(Remember the time) when your great number pleased you (in-stilling vanity in you)."
Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"And the destroyers are: desires which are followed; stinginess which
is obeyed; and a man being pleased with himself and this (last trait) is
the worse of them (of the
things which spiritually wrought destruction to one)."
Ujub is to attribute one's excellence to oneself while being oblivious
of the possibility of such excellence being snatched away by Allah Ta'ala.
Ujub is a concealed
and subtle trick of the nafs which always desires to occupy a distinguished rank (above others). The nafs obtains pleasure in this desire (of ujub). Allah Ta'ala detests
one who considers himself to be distinguished, laudable and the receptacle of excellence.
Delight over the bounties granted by Allah Ta'ala is not ujub. Such
true delight is not unrestricted and does not produce vanity since the
fear of the elimination of the
bounties is ever present in the heart. One realizes that the excellence or bounty which one has gained is purely a gift from Allah Ta'ala Who has awarded it because
of some act or knowledge (which is also The favour of Allah), and one further realizes that Allah Ta'ala has the full power of snatching away the bounty at any time
He desires. This experience of delight is therefore not ujub. On the other hand, a person suffering from the ailment of ujub becomes neglectful and fails to recognize
that the bounty in his possession is in fact a gift from Allah Ta'ala. One afflicted with ujub considers himself to be entitled to the bounties.
Ujub resembles takabbur (pride) in all aspects, save one, viz., ujub
does not necessarily imply others to be one's inferiors. A person involved
in the disease of ujub
considers himself to be of a lofty rank without necessarily regarding another to be his inferior. According to the Hadith Shareef the man of ujub strutting about in
arrogance will meet Allah Ta'ala on the Day of Qiyaamah in the state of severe wrath.
Always regard excellence and virtues which one possesses to be the bestowal
of Allah Ta'ala. Contemplate on the power of Allah and fear the possibility
of the gifts
being snatches away. Ponder about your faults, both internal and external so that the notion of perfection and holiness is annihilated.
Allah Ta'ala says:
"Verily, Allah does not love the proud ones."
Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"He who has a grain of pride in his heart will not enter Jannat."
Takabbur is to consider oneself superior to others in attributes of
excellence. There are many kinds of takabbur. Most kinds are subtle, concealed
and difficult to
detect. It is only the thorough gaze of the Shaikh-e-Kaamil which can discern such hidden forms of takabbur. In this matter even the Ulama-e-Zaahir (those Ulama
who concern themselves with only the external Law of the Shariah) are constrained to follow an expert in the Path of Tasawwuf. In a nutshell takabbur is to
voluntarily and consciously regard oneself superior to others in religious or mundane excellence in a way which engenders contempt in the heart for others. This is the reality of takabbur and this is haraam. Takabbur consists of two ingredients, viz.,
1. The feeling of superiority--considering oneself to be great.
2. Contempt for others.
Takabbur not induced voluntarily, but entering the heart involuntarily
is not sinful. Such non-volitional pride is merely the external dimension
or form of takabbur. Up
to this stage takabbur is not sinful. But when one voluntarily entertains the feeling of pride which had initially crept in involuntarily, then it will be sinful takabbur. In this
case the mere form of takabbur is transformed into the reality of takabbur.
Where the condition of contempt for others is non-existent, takabbur--
will not be applicable. Mere belief in superiority and inferiority greatness
and smallness-- is
not takabbur. For example: an old man regarding an infant to be small without the notion of contempt for it. But, the one who intentionally considers himself better
than others, becomes arrogant. His nafs swells up with pride, the consequences of which then manifest themselves. Examples of pride are: to regard others with
contempt; to take offence when others do not greet one first; to be offended if others do not offer you respect; to be annoyed when someone admonishes you;
refusal to concede the truth even after having realized it. May Allah Ta'ala keep us under His Protection and save us from takabbur, for indeed, it is the severest of
maladies. It is the root of all spiritual ailments.
It was takabbur which made shaitaan a deviate. The Hadith Shareef therefore
sounds dire warnings in regard to takabbur. Allah Ta'ala has warned that
the abode of
the proud ones will indeed be vile. Pride is the exclusive prerogative of Allah Ta'ala. Allah Ta'ala will destroy all those who desire to participate in this exclusive
Attribute of greatness. Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said that the mutakabbireen (he proud ones) will be encased in trunks of fire of Jahannam.
This malady is remedies by reflecting on the Splendour, Glory and Majesty
of Allah Ta'ala. This reflection will produce in one a realization of one's
position. Your own excellence will then recede into nothingness. Also, humble yourself in the presence of those whom you regard as your inferior. Be respectful to
them so that you become imbued with humility.
Allah Ta'ala says:
"Be forgiving; command righteousness and dissociate from the ignorant ones."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"Do not have malice for one another."
Keenah is the condition of malice which asserts itself when one lacks
the power to take revenge in the state of anger. Keenah is the seed of
many evils. When anger
has not been satisfied, its vapours engulf the heart producing a seething effect which boils the heart. This smoke and feeling root the malice in the heart. This results in
frustration. Keenah or Hiqd is an intentional condition. It is not the feeling of mere dislike which arises involuntarily and unintentionally. In malice one entertains evil in
the heart for another by design and at the same time one is concerned about schemes to harm the one at whom the malice is directed. If intention and desire to harm
are absent, it will not be malice, but will be known as Inqibaaz which is not a sinful state as this is a natural condition.
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said that two persons having malice
for one another are not forgiven. The reference to this malice is malice
based on injustice
and wrong. A hatred for the sake of Deen is not within the purview of the malice described here. Such hatred (for the sake of the Deen) is meritorious since the
"Love for the sake of Allah and hatred for the sake of Allah."
The cure for malice is to overlook the fault of the one for whom Hiqd
is entertained and to associate with him irrespective of the difficulty
one may experience in the
adoption of such a big-hearted attitude.
Allah Ta'ala says:
"That (abode) which is Daar-ul Aakhirah, We will reserve it for those
who do not desire greatness on earth nor (do they desire) strife. And,
the ultimate success is
for the pious."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"Two hungry wolves let loose in a flock of sheep do not cause as much harm as the harm to a man's Deen wrought by his greed for wealth and fame."
The desire in one that other honour, respect and be submissive to one
is termed hubb-e-jaah. It is difficult to diagnose the malady of love for
fame. It is only in the
event of an incident in which one is not honoured that this disease becomes detectable. Hubb-e-jaah is a quality which lies in one's imagination, hence its nature is
transitory. It is extremely flimsy in that it is dependent on thoughts of others, for Jaah entails honour of one by others. The thoughts of others thus form the basis of
Jaah. If others divert their thoughts, one's Jaah is eliminated. Hence, he who desires to be considered famous and honourable has to rely on the thoughts of others--
thoughts which are not within the control of the one who desires the Jaah. But, Inspite of Hubb-e-Jaah being so flimsy in nature and temporary, man hankers after it.
Only such Jaah is detestable which has been acquired by one's desire
and pursuit. Such Jaah is a calamity which destroys one's worldly life
as well as one's life of the
Hereafter. When man sees that the world acclaims him, he is overtaken by pride and vanity. These diseases finally destroy him. His Deen is thus destroyed. Many
people have fallen into this trap and were utterly annihilated.
A famous person has many envious enemies who engage in conspiracies
to harm and eliminate him. This then is the harm to one's worldly life.
Thus, both Deen and
Dunya suffer in the wake of Jaah.
On the other hand, Jaah which Allah Ta'ala bestows upon man without
him requesting it, is a Ni'mat (bounty). Like man stands in need of wealth
to a certain degree,
so does he stand in need of Jaah to a certain degree. Such limited Jaah enables him to remain in safety and be protected against injustice and oppression. Such safety
enables him to engage in the Ibaadat of Allah Ta'ala without fear and in peace. This amount of Jaah is therefore not harmful.
Meditate on the futility of hubb-e-jaah. Neither the one who honours
nor the one who is honoured will remain. All will perish. It is therefore
childish to be delighted
over such a transitory and illusionary attribute. Contemplating in this way will eliminate this malady.
Allah Ta'ala says:
"The worldly life is nothing but substance of deception."
Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"The world is the prison of the Mu'min and the paradise of the Kaafir."
All things which give pleasure here to the nafs without being of any
merit in the Aakhirah is termed dunya. We are afflicted with a number of
spiritual ailments all
having their origin in the love of the world. About this disease, Hubb-e-dunya, Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:
"Love of the world is the root of all evil."
If this root ailment is treated and cured, all other maladies flowing
from it will also disappear. A man overwhelmed by Hubb-e-dunya has no concern
and time for the
Aakhirah. Such a person having no care for the Aakhirah will not be bothered about righteous deeds nor will he abstain from evil. The one in whom there is
Hubb-e-dunya has very little Fikr for the Deen. Increase in the degree of Hubb-e-dunya brings about a corresponding decrease in Fikr (concern) for the Deen. Total Hubb-e-dunya entails total lack of Fikr for the Deen. This is manifest in the Kuffaar.
Dunya does not mean wealth and family. Dunya is the intentional and
voluntary adoption of anything evil which causes one to become forgetful
of Allah Ta'ala
irrespective of what that thing may be. Thus, acquisition of wealth and other material means is not evil, but Hubb-e-dunya (love for such material objects) is evil.
Wealth is like the water in the ocean and the heart of man is like the ship sailing in the ocean. Water, while it facilitates the movement of the ship can also bring about
its sinking. As long as the water remains outside the ship, it aids its sailing. But entry of the water into the ship causes it to sink. Similar is the case of wealth. Wealth
aids man as long as it remains outside his heart. However, of its love enters the heart it will bring about his destruction.
The Hadith Shareef states:
"Halaal wealth is a benefit to a pious man."
He benefits because he (a pious man) spends his wealth in meritorious
ways. On the contrary, if love of wealth captures the heart of man, he
suppresses the rights of
others. When the treasures of the Persian Empire were ushered into the presence of Hadhrat Umar (Radhiyallahu Anhu), he recited the Qur'aanic Aayat:
"The love of pleasures has been adorned for mankind"
He then commented: "O Allah! It is evident that the desire for pleasure is inherent in us. Its total elimination is not the aim. But, we supplicate that wealth aids us in the attainment of Your Love."
The dunya (or the world) which has been criticized is like a serpent
whose skin is colourful and most beautiful. But its poison is fatal. Intelligent
people maintain a
distance from such danger and are not lured by the externally adorned skin. But a little child unaware of the danger of a snake is attracted by the external beauty and
is prepared to grab hold of the snake. We are comparable to the little child. We are attracted to the world by its external beauty and adornment without being aware
of its dangers. Men of intelligence and experience do not incline towards the world.
People are generally deceived and overwhelmed by the glitter of the
world because they are not aware of its reality. Should the reality of
the world be revealed, they
would become utterly disillusioned and detest it. The Hadith Shareef states:
"If the value of the world was equal to that of the wing of a mosquito by Allah, He would not have allowed any Kaafir even a drink of water from it."
In the Eyes of Allah Ta'ala the world has no value. It is a detestable
object. He therefore prefers it for His enemies. A man aware of the realities
if fearful of an object
detested by Allah Ta'ala. Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam described the world in the following similitude:
"What relationship with the world have I? My similitude is like a traveller
on a mount, halting in the shade of a tree (for a short while only to leave
it again, and
proceed along the sojourn)."
The traveller rests a while in the shade and then moves on again.
Remember maut (death) in abundance and do not involve yourself in distant
and remote hopes. The pursuit of distant schemes and material enterprises
shunned. In this way the love of the world will be eliminated from the heart.
This elimination is in fact the stage at the end of Sulook (the Path
along which the Mureed travels in his spiritual journey). One has, in fact,
to become imbued with
the spirit and quality spoken of in the following Hadith:
"Die before your death."
This Hadith means that one has to inculcate the attribute of the dead
in one even before death, and that attribute is the lack of worldly love.
There are three ways by
which one can attain proximity with Allah Ta'ala, These are explained in detail as follows.
1. Atwal (the longest way).
2. Ausat (the middle way).
3. Aqall wa Aqrab (the shortest and nearest way).
This consists of observing in abundance Sawm, Salaat, Qiraa'at, Hajj, etc. This is the way of a class of Auliyaa known as the Akh'yaar.
THE AUSAT WAY
In addition to the above acts of Ibaadat is engagement in Mujaahidah,
Riyaadhat, elimination of Akhlaaq-e-Zameemah and the acquisition of Akhlaaq-e-Hameedah.
The majority of men traveling along the Path of Sulook become Waasil (attain the goal of Divine Proximity) via this second way.
THE AQAL WA AQRAB WAY
This is the way of Ishq (Love). Riyaadhat (spiritual exercises) and
mingling with people are suffocating to the Saalik (spiritual traveller)
along this path. Zikr, Fikr,
Shukr and Shauq are the intellectual occupations of the traveller plodding along the Path of Ishq. The traveller along this Road become Waasil by this method.
Purification of the nafs and adornment of the heart and soul are realized by the method of Love. They have no interest in kashf (inspirational revelation of the Auliyaa)
and karaamat (miracles of the Auliyaa). They are totally immersed in:
"Die before your death."
This third way is the way of the class of Auliyaa known as the Shataariyah.
DYING BEFORE DEATH
At the time of death, the dying man possesses certain attributes, the
inculcation of which is exhorted by the Hadith: "Die before your death."
These attributes which
are in the perfect state in the dying man are:
Taubah (repentance), zuhd, (abstention), Qanaa'at (contentment), tawakkul
(trust in Allah), Azlat (solitude), Tawajju I'lallaah (attention directed
to Allah Ta'ala),
sabr (patience), Ridhaa (pleased with Allah), Zikr (remembrance of Allah) and muraaqabah (meditation).
Among the Shataariyah the salient feature is Muraaqabah.
One has to inculcate the above qualities which overtake a dying person
to a high degree. Taubah, i.e. repentance to emerge from all evil as is
the position at the time
of maut; Zuhd, i.e. to shun the world and everything in it as is the case at maut; Tawakkul, i.e. to shun all abnormal worldly agencies as is the case at maut; Azlat, i.e.
to sever all ties with creation as is the case at maut; Qanaa'at, i.e. abstention from lowly desires-- to be contented-as is the case at maut; Tawajju I'lallaah, i.e. to
rivet one's attention towards only Allah Ta'ala as is the case at maut; Sabr, i.e. to shun pleasures as is the case at maut; Ridhaa, i.e. to abstain from pleasing the nafs,
and to be pleased with Allah and to submit in entirety to Allah Ta'ala as is the case at maut. This is the conception of "Die before your death."
One has to transform one's condition so as to be imbued with the conception
of "death before death". In this earthly life, the body is on earth, but
the rooh should be
directed to the Aakhirah, and be in communion with Allah Ta'ala. Possession of even the kingdom of the earth should not affect one's heart. The heart at all times
should be empty of the world. The sign of this lofty state having settled over one is total abstention from everything branded as evil by the Shari'ah. The mind, tongue
and the whole body have to be sealed from evil. The heart is to be emptied of all things other than Allah Ta'ala. It has to be adorned with Akhlaaq-e-Hameedah.
A man dwelling in this lofty state of purity and communion with Allah
Ta'ala is always aloof from gatherings of futility. Whatever diverts the
mind of the Seeker of
Allah from the remembrance of Allah is futility and nonsensical. The Seeker refrains from association with men of Baatil (falsehood and corruption). One who does
not pursue the Path in quest of Allah, is in fact a man of Baatil.
O beloved one! This then is the meaning of "die before your death" stated
by Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam. This is the way of Rasulullah
wasallam. This is the life which Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam desired for his Ummah.
The sign of Akhlaaq-e-Hameedah having gained dominance and one having
gained proficiency in these lofty attributes is the ability to employ correctly
these attributes with the utmost of ease. Once one has reached this stage, it is evidence of the fact that the lofty attributes have become firmly grounded in one.
Thoughts which cross the heart of man are called khawaatir (singular
Khaatir). Such thoughts are at times virtuous and at times evil. These
thoughts which occur to
man emanate from different sources. Virtue is inspired into the heart sometimes by Allah Ta'ala, sometimes by an Angel whose name is Mulhim and sometimes virtue
is whispered into the heart by even shaitaan. Evil assaulting the heart sometimes emanates from shaitaan, sometimes from the nafs and at times from Allah Ta'ala.
Pious inspirations from Allah Ta'ala serve the purpose of honoring one
or for establishing some proof. The evil Khaatir which comes from Allah
Ta'ala appears as a
test and to impose some labour and effort on one. From the Angel Mulhim emanates always only goodness since this is his function. His function is to guide towards
Khaatir (virtue or the good thought) emerging from shaitaan is deception.
He casts his trickery in the form of a good Khaatir, but in reality it
is evil designed to divert
one from a greater virtue by involving one in a lesser virtue. The purpose of evil emanating from shaitaan is to deceive and disgrace man,
Evil emanating from the nail is to mislead man and to prevent him from
the truth. The good which issues from the nafs is extremely negligible.
It is in fact comparable
THE DISTINGUISHING SIGNS OF THE EVIL FROM ALLAH, THE NAFS AND SHAITAAN
If the evil Khaatir is from Allah Ta'ala it will be recognized from
its firmness and one's total inability to combat it. One will discover
that one is unable to ward it off. If
the sharr (wickedness) which afflicts the heart is firm and retains constancy being of a solid unchanging condition which renders the nafs extremely restless in the
desire to commit the evil while at the same time all effort and means of combating the evil are rendered useless in the face of the onslaught of the sharr, then such an
evil Khaatir is from Allah Ta'ala. The remedy for such a Khaatir is nothing but to petition Allah Ta'ala, seeking His aid and protection, humbling oneself and shedding
tears of concern and regret. This is a trial from Allah Ta'ala. Only His aid will be of any good.
If the Khaatir of sharr is not as pressing and severe as is described above, but remains static then it is from the nafs.
If a Khaatir of sharr assaults the heart after having sinned and it
occurs vigorously then such sharr is from Allah Ta'ala and its purpose
is to disgrace the sinner and act
as a punishment for having sinned. If after having sinned, the thought of sharr occurs to one, but not vigorously, it enters feebly then such sharr is from shaitaan
providing that it disappears or is weakened by engagement in Zikr. In this regard Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said:
"Verily, shaitaan clings onto the heart of man. When man remembers Allah,
shaitaan retreats (from the heart). When man becomes neglectful of Allah's
asserts himself with his whisperings (into the heart of man)."
If the Khaatir of sharr which assaulted the heart after having sinned
does not disappear nor is weakened by Zikr, then such Khaatir is directed
by the nafs. Shaitaan
was the victim of such direction by the Nafs. When he proclaimed his greatness on the occasion of his refusal to make the sajdah commanded for Aadam (Alayhis
Salaam). Neither could his Zikr ward off the evil Khaatir of his nafs nor did the exhortation of Allah Ta'ala benefit him. The cause of this rebellion of shaitaan's nafs
was the absence of Abdiyyat. (Abdiyyat is the state of total submission-- being a slave to another. ) Shaitaan further lacked humility, hence nothing was of a benefit
for him. He possessed no true insight, hence his obedience and his Ibaadaat were mere bodily exercises shorn of the true insight which is in the heart of Imaan. This
condition of shaitaan became manifest with his rebellion. If he had possessed the insight of Imaan he would not have engaged in disputation but would have submitted
and would have derived pleasure from such submission and true obedience. Argumentation, disputation and doubt always occur prior to Mushaahadah (true, sure
and established knowledge).
If a Khaatir of virtue settles on the heart with resoluteness and one
is unable to attain peace of mind without enacting the virtue, then such
good thought is from Allah
Ta'ala; It will also be from Allah if the Khaatir of khair (virtue) occurs after mujaahidah and Ibaadat or even if such Khaatir of virtue happens to be related to the
principles and acts of the Baatin ((he esoteric dimension of man that pertaining to his rooh). The Qur'aan-e-Kareem says:
"And, those who strive in our way, We will most certainly show them our Ways."
In other words, Allah Ta'ala will direct them towards His Proximity,
Thawaab and Jannat. This Aayat is proof for what has been elaborated in
regard to the khair
(virtue) which emanates from Allah Ta'ala.
If the Khaatir of khair entering the heart is not as resolute as explained above or it occurs initially without one having resorted to mujaahidah or the khair relates to the details of the external acts of Ibaadat and righteousness, then such inspiration is from the Angel Mulhim .
A Khaatir of khair having the following ingredients is from shaitaan:
It produces total delight-delight unchecked by khauf (fear).
It demands haste. The haste it wants is unchecked.
It pertains to something, the consequences of which are not at all considered.
The following five occasions are excluded from this rule:
1. Marriage of a virgin.
2. Payment of the debt.
3. Burial of the dead.
4. Feeding the visitor.
5. Repenting for sins.
If the Khaatir of khair is accompanied by delight tempered with khauf
and one is concerned about the consequences of the act if it is translated
into practice, then
such thought of virtue is from Allah Ta'ala. It has also been said that such a Khaatir of khair is from the Angel Mulhim.
N.B. Khauf in the context of this discussion means concern and anxiety
to render the virtue fully, and perfectly, observing all the required rules
pertaining to that act, the thought of which has occurred. At the same time one is anxious in regard to the acceptance of the deed--will Allah Ta'ala accept it or reject
it? The meaning of being concerned about the consequences is in relation to guidance, virtue and hope for thawaab in the Aakhirah. There should be no other motive.
Mulhim is the name of an angel who occupies the right side of the heart
while Waswaas is the name of a shaitaan who occupies the left side of the
heart of man. The
Hadith Shareef explains this:
"When man is born Allah Ta'ala creates an angel and a shaitaan along
with him. The shaitaan makes his abode on the left side of man's heart
and the angel settles on
the right side. Both then call towards man."
Some effort, concern and Zikr (among which the recitation of Laa Haulaa
Walaa Quwwat is very efficacious) will suffice to ward off the khawaatir
of shaitaan. Allah
"Verily, the scheme of shaitaan is weak."
The best remedy for the waswasah (thoughts and whisperings) of shaitaan
is to totally ignore these. How will one know that one is ignoring such
shaitaan? The recognition of this is that one will not be un-duly bothered or vexed when such thoughts assault one. The state of indifference which existed prior to the
entry of satanic waswasah should also prevail after these thoughts have entered the heart. In fact, the occurrence of satanic waswasah is proof of one's Imaan. Such
assaults should therefore be a cause of happiness and not sorrow. When the Sahaabah-e-Kiraam explained their concern and vexation about these satanic thoughts
which afflicted them, Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said:
"This is clear evidence of Imaan."
A thief makes an attempt only where there is something of value.
Regarding the desires of the nafs, great effort and great struggle are
required in this sphere. Subjugation of the desires of the nafs is achieved
only after struggle. The
need to confront the nafs with resolution, wrath and determination is very-important- There are three ways of combating the desires of the nafs. These are:
1. Preventing it from lust by denying it its nutrition. Its desires
should not be fulfilled. Much resistance ha-s to be offered to the nafs.
When a wild horse is denied
food or its food is reduced it becomes submissive. It will become subdued and the lustful demands of the nafs will be ended.
2. The imposition of Ibaadat on the nafs also weakens its demands. An ass becomes weak and submissive it along with denying it food it is loaded with a heavy load. Similarly, the nafs will be transformed from a state of restlessness to tranquillity by imposing on it such Ibaadat which is beneficial.
3. Seeking the aid of Allah Ta'ala. Allah says in the Qur'aan Shareef:
"Verily, the nafs is a great commander of evil, but (the nafs) upon whom Allah is merciful (such a nafs will remain obedient)."
Adoption of these three methods with constancy will, Inshaa Allah, render
the nafs obedient and submissive. Man will then be safe from its evil promptings.
after having gained control of the nafs, one has to be alert at all times. Ghaflat (negligence) is extremely dangerous. Ghaflat will result in the nafs once again asserting
its domination and control over man.
In man there exists the capacity for desire. This capacity is termed
the nafs. This capacity refers to both virtue and evil. it desires goodness
as well as evil. In its
development the nafs passes through three stages, viz., Ammaarah, Lawwaa'mah and Mut'mainnah.
In this stage the nafs is overwhelming in the desire of evil and it
experiences no regret for its evil commissions and omissions. This lowly
stage is also termed
In this stage the nafs suffers remorse and regret when afflicted by evil desires.
In this stage the nafs is overwhelmingly in the desire of virtue.
THE TYPES OF THOUGHTS AND THEIR HUKM (EFFECT)
According to the Hadith Shareef, Allah Ta'ala overlooks thoughts as
long as these are not given practical expression. There are five stages
in thought, viz., Haajis,
Khaatir, Hadeeth-un- Nafs, Hamm (Grief) and Azm.
Haajis is a thought which in the beginning produces no reaction in the
nafs. If one is fortunate to eliminate the thought in the haajis stage,
the other four stages will not
If one fails to eliminate the haajis thought and it establishes its
presence in the nafs without the latter (i.e. the nafs) plotting to give
it practical expression, it ((he
thought) enters the Khaatir stage.
This stage consists of the nafs scheming regarding the enaction or negation
of that which has established itself in the nafs. The nafs ruminates on
the plot of doing or
not doing the act without giving preference to any side of action. The thought is now known as Hadeeth-un- Nafs.
The hukm (effect) of these three stages is no punishment if the thought
is evil and no reward if the thought is good. Punishment and reward do
not apply to the stages
of Haajis, Khaatir and Hadeeth-un- Nafs.
When the nafs after having reflected about action or inaction regarding
the deed it had schemed, inclines partially to one side (i.e. any side
whether to commit or shun
the act), the thought is known as Hamm. Thought in this stage merits thawaab if virtuous and punishment if evil.
When the thought finally asserts itself and a decision is made to give
it practical expression, it is known as Azm. Thawaab and punishment are
applicable to this stage
THE SIGNS OF THE ACQUISITION OF NISBAT WITH ALLAH TA'ALA
Nisbat literally means relationship or connection. A nisbat or connection
is a two-way process. It has two ends. In our context Nisbat Ma'Allah (Relationship
Allah) means Allah's connection with the bandah (servant) and the bandah's connection with Allah Ta'ala.
The attainment of Nisbat Ma'Allah is also referred to as Husool il'Allah
(Attained towards Allah). The relationship of Allah with the bandah is
Allah's Pleasure with
His servant. The relationship of the bandah with Allah means constancy of the servant in taa'at (obedience) and involvement in abundant Zikr with perfect
The sign of the existence of the bandah's relationship with Allah is
his restlessness for engagement in obedience and Ibaadat as well as total
abhorrence for all
forms-- both Zaahir and Baatin-- of sin and disobedience. In addition to this is the bandah's continuous striving to follow the Sunnah.
N-B- Among the various kinds of Ibaadat, Salaat is an all-embracing
form of worship. If executed properly, observing all its rules, conditions
and respects then no
other specific form of Riyaadhat (spiritual exercise) is necessary for spiritual progress and the achievement of Nisbat Ma'Allah. Salaat contains Zikr, Shaghl,
Muraaqabah, Auraad, e.g. Tasbeeh, Istighfaar, Darood etc. The Zikr of Salaat is the Tilaawat of the Qur'aan in it. This is in fact the highest form of Zikr. Shaghl in
Salaat is the pre-occupation of the mind which consists of focusing the attention on the spot of Sajdah during Qiyaam; on the feet during, Ruku; on the bridge of the
nose during Sajdah; on the lap in Jalsah, and on the shoulders when making Salaam. Muraaqabah in Salaat is one's contemplation at the time of
Takbeer-e-Tahreemah and keeping in mind for the whole duration of Salaat that "Allah is watching me." This condition of total contemplation is called Ihsaan. All
Mujaahidah and Riyaadhat are undertaken to achieve this condition of Ihsaan. Regarding the condition of Ihsaan, the Hadith Shareef says that Jibra'eel (Alayhis
Salaam) asked Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam :
"What is Ihsaan?"
Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam replied:
"(Ihsaan is) that you worship Allah as if you are seeing Him and if you cannot see Him (then know) that, verily, He sees you."
In brief the path of Sulook and its final destination, the stage of
ihsaan, is attainable by fulfilling Salaat with all its Aadaab, Mustahabbaat
and Shuroot. In this way the
effects of Lataa'if-e-Sittah (the six spiritual faculties) will become manifest.
The six Lateefah (spiritual faculties) in man are the Nafs, Qalb, Rooh, Sirr, Khafee and Akhfaa. Their effects are as follows:
1. NAFS: (Nafs here refers to Nafs-e-Mut'mainnah): Its nourishment is abstention from sin.
2. QALB: Its nourishment is Zikr.
3. ROOH: Its nourishment is Huzoori (constantly alert and in the presence of Allah).
4. SIRR: The nourishment of Sirr is the unveiling of realities.
5. KHAFI: The nourishment of Khafee is Shuhood (to behold the truth and to contemplate it), and Fanaa (to be annihilated or totally absorbed in Tauheed).
6. AKHFAA: The nourishment of Akhfaa is Fanaa-ul-Fanaa (i.e. to be unaware
of even one's stage of annihilation). Regarding this faculty there exists
opinion among the authorities.
The manifestation of the affects of these six faculties assume the following form in Salaat.
There are seven degrees in Salaat, viz., Salaat-e-Tan (body), Salaat-e-Nafs, Salaat-e-Qalb, Salaat-e-Rooh, Salaat-e-Sirr, Salaat-e-Khafee and Salaat-e-Akhfaa.
The effect of Salaat-e-Tan (body) is prohibition of sin; that of Salaat-e-Nafs
is prevention of relationships other than the relationship of Allah; of
negation of negligence; of Salaat-e-Rooh is prevention of the gaze from looking at others; of Salaat-e-Sirr prevention of the mind from wandering and turning to
others besides Allah; of Salaat-e-Khafee is man's achieving the degree of spiritual development where reality becomes manifest to him; and, the effect of
Salaat-e-Akhfaa is true communion with Allah Ta'ala. The experience of this stage is Mi'raaj.
CONDITIONS FOR IJAAZAT
When the Shaikh discerns in a Mureed a constant yearning for islaah
(spiritual reformation) and steadfastness in this purpose and the Mureed
along the Path of
Sulook reaches the junction leading up to Allah Ta'ala, he (the Shaikh) bestows the Mantle of Khilaafat-e-Bay'at on the Mureed who is now appointed as the
Khalifah of the Shaikh.
The Mureed attains this lofty rank after continuous and regular association and communication, etc. with his Shaikh.
The Journey of Sulook comprises two sojourns:
1. Sair I'lallaah (Journey towards Allah).
2. Sair Fil-laah (Journey in Allah).
This journey consists of two fundamental aspects, viz.,
Purification of the nafs from Nafsaani ailments known as Akhlaaq-e-Razeelah.
Reference to this is made in the Qur'aanic Aayat: "Verily, he has attained
who has purified his nafs."
Adornment of the heart with Akhlaaq-e-Hameedah. This is called Tah'liyah and also Taj'liyyah. In Sulook this acquisition is described as Maqaamaat (stages).
When the Mureed becomes grounded in the acquisition of Maqaamaat, in
the purification of the nafs and when he has achieved proficiency in the
ways and means of
acquiring lofty attributes and eradicating lower qualities, then upon him reaching the stage of Sair I'lallaah the Shaikh confers on him the Mantle of Khilaafat and
grants him Ijaazat (permission) to initiate others into the Path of Sulook.
Upon having attained the stage of Sair I'lallaah, a special celestial
glitter (Jilaa) and light (Noor) permeate the heart. The heart then is
at all times dissociated from all
things other than Allah. The heart is now truly engrossed with Allah Ta'ala. In this high stage of spiritual development, matters pertaining to Zaat (The Being of Allah),
Sifaat (Attributes of Allah), Af'aal (Acts of Allah), Haqaa'iq (Realities) as well as relationships between Allah and His servants become manifest. This then is termed
In the realm of Sair Fi'llaah are no limits. Progress is infinite. Progress
is proportional and continuous in relation to one's ability, engrossment
with Allah Ta'ala and
casting aside all motives irrespective of such motives pertaining to this world or the hereafter. When one has attained this rank, one attributes nothing to oneself.
The Shaikh appoints the Mureed as Mujaaz-e-Bay'at (authorizes him to
initiate mureeds and to attend to their spiritual affairs) after he (the
Mureed) has attained the
stage of Sair I'lallaah. Sometimes the Shaikh delays this appointment until the Mureed has reached the stage of Sair Fil-laah. This appointment by the Shaikh of the
Mureed at different stages of development is a matter confined entirely to the condition of the Mureed and the inclination (Zauq) of the Shaikh.
There are various reasons which induce a Mureed to search for a Shaikh other than the one who is his Shaikh. Among these reasons are:
1. The Mureed discovers that his first Shaikh does not adhere to the Shari'ah. The Shaikh indulges in Bid'at or always commits Kabeerah (major) sins.
2. The mureed has no congeniality (Munaasabat) with the first Shaikh
notwithstanding the first Shaikh being a strict adherent of the Shari'ah
and a follower of the
3. The demise of the first Shaikh. In this event it will suffice if
the Mureed turns to another Shaikh to perfect his islaah (reformation)
without him even becoming his
formal mureed. The mureed may, however, also complete his islaah by another Shaikh along with entering into Bay'at with him (the Shaikh).
Our precedent in this aspect is Hadhrat Haaji Imdaadullah Sahib (May
Allah brighten his grave). Hadhrat Haaji Imdaadullah first was Mujaaz -e-Bay'at
Naqshbandiyyah Order. When his Shaikh died he made the Bay'at to Hadhrat Mianjee Noor Muhammad Sahib (May Allah brighten his grave) in the Chishtiyyah
Order. Haaji Imdaadullah did so because he had not yet attained satiation in the Spiritual Sojourn. Hadhrat Mianjee also conferred the Mantle of Mujaaz-e-Bay'at to Haaji Imdaadullah Sahib. Today-, both Arab and Ajam have benefited from the fu'yoodh (spiritual effulgence) and Barakaat (spiritual fortune) of Haaji Imdaadullah Sahib.
It is vital to remember that after having accepted another Shaikh, the
Mureed should never be disrespectful to his former Shaikh, neither in word
or deed not in his
absence or presence. This applies even if the former Shaikh has happened to stray from the Shari'ah. Any such disrespect will prove calamitous for the Mureed.
All sin and connections other than those with Allah Ta'ala are the bandits
along the Path of Sulook, However, there are several things from which
the Saalik has to
abstain. This is vital. If the Saalik does not rigorously abstain from these aspects, his efforts and struggles will be utterly wasted. These fatal impediments strewn along the Path of spiritual progress are:
Opposition to the Sunnah:
Alas! In the present age, customs and innovations are in great prevalence.
Nowadays such innovatory customs are being regarded as Tasawwuf. Rasulullah
Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam said:
"Soon there will dawn an age over people when there will remain of Islam nothing but its name, and of the Qur'aan there will remain nothing but its script."
Inadvertently becoming the mureed of an irreligious peer and Inspite
of the error in this Bay'at, clinging to him life-long. When the peer himself
is not Waasil, how will
he cause the mureed to become Waasil?
Association with females and lads and casting lustful glances at them.
It is narrated in Jawaahir -e-Ghaibee that a man once while making Tawaaf
of Baitullaah was
uttering: "O Allah ! I seek Your protection from Yourself." Someone enquired from him the meaning of this. He replied: "Once I cast a lustful glance at a handsome
lad when Lo, a hand from the unseen (Ghaib) appeared and slapped me causing the loss of my eye." Yusuf Bin Husain said: "I have observed that the calamities of
the Sufis are in association with young lads, in companionship with impious persons and inclining tenderly towards females."
Lust for lads is worse than lust for women. Nowadays such unnatural
practices of lust with lads are very prevalent. The act of sodomy is in
the severest degree of
prohibition, hence Rasulullah Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam said:
"I greatly fear for my people the practice of the nation of Loot."
In another Hadith, Rasulullah Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam said:
"The curses of the Angels of the seven heavens descend on seven types
of sinners. The intensity of this La'nat (curse) is sufficient to destroy
the Mal'oon (the
accursed). (The first of the seven types) is one who practised sodomy."
Nabi-e-Kareem Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam repeated the above warning thrice.
In another Hadith it was said:
"Allah Ta'ala abhors looking at a man who commits sodomy."
Some people although not committing acts of lust are involved in the
malady of gazing with lust. It should be borne in mind that the eyes also
(fornication). Few people exercise caution in this respect despite the fact that staring with lust is a stepping-stone to fornication. According to the principle of Fiqh,
the means and agencies of haraam are likewise haraam. So remember this, and understand it well.
Evils of the tongue.
Speech in abundance and claiming excellence and virtues as well as speaking
disrespectfully of the Shari'ah or Allah Ta'ala are among the greatest
along this Path. Some Jaahil (ignorant) peers indulge in such evil use of the tongue.
To engage in Mujaahidah of one's own making in addition to the Ta'leem
(instruction) of the Shaikh. Such unauthorized prescription by the mureed
Within a short while, the Mureed will become frustrated and discard even the little which he was instructed to do by the Shaikh. This calamity has befallen many a
mureed. It was because of this pitfall that Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam instructed the adoption of only that much A'maal (righteous practices) which will not
weary one down producing frustration. Rasulullah Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam said in this regard that Allah Ta'ala will not "weary" and be "frustrated" as long as you
do not become weary and frustrated.
Haste in expecting the fruits of Mujaahidah. This is also a great obstacle.
The Mureed sometimes in his haste and impatience feels that even after
having made much
Mujaahidah for a while, he has not derived the fruits thereof. The consequence of this attitude is that the Mureed either loses confidence in his Shaikh or he neglects
his Mujaahidah. This is indeed a great calamity which can befall the Mureed. It is imperative that the Mureed realizes that nothing is achieved overnight. The selfsame
person at one stage was an infant. Only after a considerable lapse of time did he attain youthood. At first he was ignorant and only after some time had passed did he
become a learned man. Similar then is the case of spiritual progress along the spiritual journey.
In short, haste and expectation (for the effects of Mujaahidah to become
manifest) are by implication demands which the Mureed puts to his Shaikh.
are very harmful. This type of mureed does not remain contented with his Shaikh. He turns to all and sundry for remedies. He is like a vagrant along this Path and he
in consequence loses the grace and favour of the Shaikh. The Mureed in the final analysis loses in entirety what he had initially desired so impatiently. His frustration
and worry multiply. Outwardly and inwardly he becomes engulfed by harm.
Introducing defect in one's confidence and love for the Shaikh. Of greater
calamity than even this, is to hurt the feelings of the Shaikh and to harm
him. Such action
and attitude bring about the total destruction of munaasabat (congeniality) between the Shaikh and the Mureed.
Munaasabat or congeniality is the relationship of affinity which the
Mureed has with his Shaikh. This bond should be of such a degree that the
Mureed entertains no
rejection or dislike for any statement, act or condition of the Shaikh. This should be a physical condition of attachment in one's disposition. However, if one's
munaasabat has not reached this degree of physical congeniality, it is necessary that it exists at least on the intellectual plane (Aqlee Munaasabat). The Mureed
should find all acts and statements of the Shaikh likable and acceptable.
This Munaasabat is conditional for Bay'at. Great care has therefore
to be adopted in this matter. Minus such Munaasabat, all devotional practices
Mujaahidah, Riyaadhat, muraaqabah and Mukaashafah will come to nought. They will be devoid of benefit. In the absence of a tab'ee (natural and physical)
munaasabat, the mureed should inculcate an Aqlee Munaasabat. Spiritual benefit to the Mureed rests on the existence of munaasabat.
In view of the overriding importance of munaasabat, one should not enter
into the Bay'at allegiance if such munaasabat is lacking. The Bay'at will
prove of great
benefit after love and munaasabat have been cultivate.
THE HARMS OF UMOOR-E-GHAIR IKHTIYAARIYYAH
Umoor-e-Ghair Ikhtiyaariyyah are qualities and conditions which are
beyond one's volitional control. These are natural states and attributes
in man and their
cultivation and eradication are not within the purview of his power.
Among the impediments along the Path of Sulook are another two ailments
which are so widespread that almost all Mureeds are involved therein. Even
are involved in these.
1. The one obstacle is the Mureed's concern to acquire attributes and
states not within his volitional control. Among the Umoor-e-Ghair Ikhtiyaariyyah
(joy), Shauq (eagerness), Istighraaq (absorption), Lazzat (pleasure), Yaksoo-ee'(solitude) in disposition, daf-e-khatraat (the ability to ward off thought), Shorish
(pangs of spiritual love), Injizaab (a condition similar to Istighraaq), etc. These states and attributes are erroneously considered to be the effects of Zikr, Shaghl and
mujaahidah. The non-acquisition of these Umoor -e-Ghair-Ikhtiyaariyyah is considered to be the consequence of having been deprived of the effects of effort, But,
this too is erroneous.
2. The other obstacle is the Mureed's effort to eliminate certain of
the Umoor-e-Ghair Ikhtiyaariyyah, e-g- the state of Qabdh (a state of spiritual
abundance of Khaitraat, inability to concentrate, natural love for wealth, dominance of natural anger, absence of tenderness, inability to shed tears, the assertion of
worldly sorrow or fear, etc. Sometimes the Mureed regards these natural and non-volitional attributes and conditions to be detrimental to his progress along the Path
of Sulook. He labours under the notion that because of the presence of such Umoor -e-Ghair Ikhtiyaariyyah he will not be able to attain his goal. Failure to eradicate
these non-volitional aspects is erroneously considered to be a cause for drifting away from Allah Ta'ala.
The above mentioned are two obstacles which generally occur to the travellers
along this Path of Sulook. The common factor between there two obstacles
pursuit of things beyond one's control. Both acquisition and elimination of Umoor-e-Ghair Ikhtiyaariyyah are not within the control of man. One suffers adversely by
pursuing such non-volitional aspects. One harmful effect of such wasteful pursuit is the implied confrontation with the declaration of Allah Ta'ala:
"Allah does not impose on one (anything), but that which one can bear."
Since these aspects are non-volitional, their acquisition and elimination
are beyond man's control and capacity. Allah Ta'ala has therefore not imposed
acquisition and elimination on the Mureed. But when the Saalik considers such acquisition and elimination necessary for the attainment of his goal, he by implication
believes that this attitude of his is commanded and imperative. But as said earlier, the Shari'ah has commanded one only in regard to that which one is capable of
doing. The Saalik's attitude implies that capability is not conditional for the executing of a task. This then is his confrontation with the Divine declaration:
"Allah does not impose on a person (anything), but that which he is capable of doing."
Failure by the Mureed to achieve the desired acquisition and elimination of Umoor-e-Ghair Ikhtiyaariyyah produces progressive frustration, the consequences being:
Physical illness may develop as a result of constant worry. This in turn results in the omission of many devotional practices.
Frustration sometimes results in ill-temper. Others are then inconvenienced by one's display of ill-manners.
Preponderance of worry and frustration at times causes one to neglect the rights of one's family as well as those of others. Such neglect becomes sinful.
In cases this frustration reaches such proportions which drive the mureed to suicide. Thus, both his dunya and his Aakhirah are destroyed.
Sometimes the frustration causes the mureed to lose hope to the extent
that he considers acts of obedience and righteousness to be useless. In
consequence he ends
all his righteous activities and reaches and abrupt halt in his spiritual affairs.
Sometimes he becomes disillusioned with his Shaikh, losing confidence in him. He then labours under the notion that his Shaikh is not aware of the Path of Sulook.
Sometimes the frustration becomes so extreme that one becomes displeased
with Allah Ta'ala, attributing one's failure to Allah Ta'ala. One then
finds fault with the
promises which Allah Ta'ala has made in the Qur'aan Shareef regarding His Aid to the one who strives along His Path. May Allah Ta'ala protect us from such a
Those trodding the Path of Sulook should endeavour to follow the method
of Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam in everything. Following the Sunnah
Noor in the heart. Have patience when anyone says something which displeases you. Don't say anything in haste, especially while in anger. Be very careful in the
state of anger. Never consider yourself to be perfect or one who possesses excellences. Ponder before speaking. When you are convinced that in what you intend
speaking is no harm and in it is some benefit or need regarding the world or Deen, then only proclaim it. Never speak ill of even an evil person. Do not listen to evil.
Do not criticize any dervish who may be overwhelmed by some ecstatic condition and may be saying something which in your opinion seems to be in conflict with the
Deen. Never despise any Muslim even if he happens to be a sinner. Never yearn nor have greed for wealth and honour. Do not make an occupation of ta'weez and
talisman, for the general public will overwhelm you (by making demands and requests for ta'weez). As far as is possible remain in the company of those who engage
in Zikr. Such association creates Noor, courage and love in the heart.
Do not expand much worldly affairs. Do not meet people unnecessarily.
When necessity compels you to meet others, meet them kindly and display
As soon as the need has been fulfilled withdraw from company. Remain aloof especially from acquaintances. Search for the companionship of the people of Allah
(the pious and saintly ones) or meet with such persons who are not well-known to you. Harm from such people is slight.
If some spiritual condition occurs in your heart or some amazing knowledge
enters the heart, inform your Shaikh. Do not request your Shaikh for some
Shaghl (devotional practice). Do not inform anyone besides your Shaikh of the effect Zikr produces in you.
Do not be deceiving nor beat about the bush when you have realized your
error. Confess immediately. In all circumstances have trust in Allah and
present your needs
to Him only. Request Allah to grant you steadfastness on the Deen.
1. The first step of the Mureed in the Path of Sulook is Sidq or sincerity
so that the structure can be erected on a proper foundation. The Mashaa'ikh
have said that
people have been deprived of Wusool (gaining Diving Proximity) because they have destroyed the Usool (foundations). Thus, the first step is the rectification of
belief which exists between Allah and man. Such rectification is obligatory. Belief has necessarily to be free of doubt, suspicion, error, innovation and should be
established by means of absolute proofs.
2. Once the Mureed has solidified his belief with Allah Ta'ala, then
it devolves upon him to acquire a sufficient amount of knowledge of the
Shariah. Such knowledge
may be acquired either academically or by inquiring from some Aalim. This is necessary so that one's duties and obligations be correctly discharged. When
confronted by different verdicts of the Fuqahaa, adopt the one in which there is precaution. Always resolve to remain aloof from disputation.
3. It is then essential that the Mureed acquire moral character from some Shaikh. If he has no Ustaad, never will he attain success.
4. When he resolves to enter into the Path of Sulook, then after rendering
what has been explained above, it is incumbent upon him to seek forgiveness
Ta'ala for all sins. He has to abstain from all sin, be it Zaahiri or Baatini and be it Sagheerah or Kabeerah. Firstly, he must make his peace with those who have rights
over him. The Road of Sulook will not open up for the Saalik who has failed to make his peace with the Ahl-e-Huqooq (people who have rights over him).
5. Thereafter he should endeavour to reduce his relationships and worldly
activities because the edifice of Sulook is reared on the peace of the
heart. When intending
to emerge from relationships, begin with emergence from wealth, for wealth is such an object which diverts one from Allah Ta'ala and inclines one to it. There has
never been a Mureed who having entered this Path with worldly associations, remained steadfast. On the contrary, his worldly encumbrances diverted him,
separated him from the Path and restored him to former connections.
N.B. The meaning of wealth here refers to such wealth which is outside
the bounds of the Shari'ah as well as such wealth in which one is engrossed
6. After emerging from wealth it is incumbent to emerge from Jaah (name
and fame), for Jaah is a great obstacle along this Path. Nothing will the
Mureed gain until
acceptance and rejection of him by others do not seem equal. The greatest harm for the Mureed is the desire that people honour and respect him. Jaah is a fatal
poison. for the Mureed.
7. When the Mureed has emerged from Maal (wealth) and Jaah (fame ),
it is then incumbent on him to make a firm pledge to Allah Ta'ala that
he will not oppose any
of the advice's of his Shaikh. Opposition to the Shaikh is extremely harmful. Among the conditions of this pledge is that the Mureed does not entertain any objection
regarding his Shaikh even in his heart.
8. It is then incumbent upon him to conceal his secrets, not revealing
it to even his closest associates. But he should not conceal from his Shaikh.
If any Mureed
conceals even the slightest of his condition, then indeed, he has abused the right of suhbat (companionship) of his Shaikh. If the Mureed realizes, either by himself or
by having been reminded by the Shaikh, that he has opposed the Shaikh in anything, he should immediately confess his error to the Shaikh and submit happily to any
punishment the Shaikh may prescribe. It is not proper for the Shaikh to overlook the faults of the Mureed. If the Shaikh does so, he will be guilty of destroying the
Huqooq (rights) of Allah Ta'ala. Overlooking faults here means to refrain from calling the attention of the Mureed to such faults. However, there is no harm in the
Shaikh forgiving the Mureed and not punishing him when he (Shaikh) has hope of reforming the Mureed without meting out punishment.
9. As long as the Mureed has not renounced all associations it is not
permissible for the Shaikh to prescribe for him any of the special formula
of Zikr. It is incumbent
upon the Shaikh to first put the Mureed to test. After having tested the Mureed and when the Shaikh's heart bears testimony in regard to the firmness of the
Mureed's resolution, the Shaikh should stipulate the condition that the Mureed will resign with pleasure to the variety of circumstances produced by fate (Qadhaa) in
this Path of Sulook. The Shaikh must take a pledge from the Mureed that he will not turn his face away from this Path regardless of whatever overtakes him, whether
it be harm, disgrace, poverty, sickness, pain, etc. Furthermore, the Mureed has to pledge that he will not incline towards the ease advocated by the heart nor will he
search for easy ways out at the time of hunger and need. He will not adopt physical comfort nor will laxity become his way. Concession (Rukhsat) and laxity (Kasl)
in this context refer to those prescribed by indolence or one's personal opinion. Such concessions and laxity are reprehensible. However, concessions advocated by
the Shari'ah or adopted on the instruction of the Shaikh are not reprehensible.
10. It is extremely harmful for the Mureed to sit in the gatherings
of the Fuqahaa and As'haab-e-Tareeq in the initial stages. However, if
some Mureed has indulged
in this error then he should adopt the following method and attitude: He should respect the Shu'yookh (plural of Shaikh) and be of service to them. He should desist
from contradicting them and he should act in a way which will give them comfort. He should refrain from any attitude which will create a barrier in the heart of the
Shaikh for him. In the association with Fuqaraa it is incumbent to give preference to them and not to consider oneself a greater cla1nlant to any right. Consider the
right of every one in the group of Fuqaraa to be binding on you. Do not consider that you have any right over any of them. It is incumbent that the Mureed does not
oppose any among the group. If the Mureed discovers that he ( i.e. the Mureed himself) is correct, then he should maintain silence. This does not mean association in
the Baatil (falsehood) of others. It merely means, maintenance of silence after proclaiming the truth and not indulging in disputation. In disputation is the destruction of
time and the clouding of the heart. Do not permit such differences to effect your other social affairs.
A Mureed suffering from the habit of excessive laughter, obstinacy and arguing will attain no progress in this Path.
11. External abundance of Auraad (specific forms of Zikr) is not among
the etiquette's (Aadaab) of the Mureed. On the contrary, this group (of
Saalikeen) is ever
engaged in eliminating from them Khatraat (stray and evil thoughts and diversions) and negligence of the heart. Their occupation is purification of character and not
abundance of practices. Faraaidh and Sunan-e-Muakkadah are incumbent on them. They adhere to these rigidly. The heart remaining in a permanent state of Zikr
(Zikr Qalbi) is superior than abundance of supererogatory acts of worship (Nafl).
12. After the Mureed has established in himself permanence of Zikr (the
heart and tongue perpetually engaging in Zikr) and he has accorded solitude
publicity, he may experience certain supernatural occurrences while sleeping or while awake or in a condition between sleep and awakefulness. For example: he may
hear a supernatural voice or he may experience the revelation of some metaphysical reality. If this happens, the Mureed should not pay any attention to it nor should
he attach any importance to such events. He should not await or remain in expectation of similar experiences because all such events are diversionary. They divert
the Mureed's attention from Allah Ta'ala. However, it is imperative to notify the Shaikh of all such occurrences and experiences. Relating this to the Shaikh will free
the heart from the encumbrance of such experiences.
It is incumbent upon the Shaikh to guard the secrets of the Mureed.
The Shaikh shall derogate the importance of such super-natural experiences.
In other words, he
will explain their insignificance to the Mureed because all such events are trials.
Contentment and pleasure with these supernatural experiences are in
fact deception. The Shaikh should, therefore, alert and warn the Mureed
about the danger of
focusing the attention on such insignificant events. The Shaikh should encourage the Mureed to aspire for heights far loftier than such experiences.
13. Among the Ahkaam (rules) of the Mureed is that he migrate to a place
where he can be in the association of a Shaikh who happens to be a guide
of the age. Such migration is necessary if the Mureed finds no such qualified Shaikh in the place of his residence. The Mureed should then remain in attendance to the
Shaikh and not depart until such time that he obtains the permission of the Shaikh.
14. The Mureed should not entertain the idea that the Shaikh is Ma'soom
(sinless). However, he should hold the Shaikh in high esteem and if occasionally
Mureed witnesses any transgression by the Shaikh, he (Mureed) should not sever his ties with the Shaikh on this account. However, should the Shaikh perpetrate
acts of transgression in abundance, the Mureed should end his ties with the Shaikh politely, honorably and with respect. The Shaikh should also not command the
Mureed to do such acts which constitute transgression (in the Shari'ah).
15. Among the gravest of calamities and misfortunes in this Path is
companionship with young lads. All the Mashaa'ikh unanimously assert that
the one who has
become involved in such association (with lads), has in fact been disgraced by Allah Ta'ala.
16. Among the calamities for a Mureed is subtle and concealed Hasad
(envy) in his nafs for brothers along the Path. He should not envy any
of his contemporaries in
the Path if they have attained a distinguished rank while he himself has been deprived thereof. He should understand that all affairs have already been predetermined.
17. Among the Aadaab of the Mureed is that he should not aspire for
leadership nor should he desire that anyone becomes his mureed or student.
If the Mureed,
prior to the annihilation of the flesh and elimination of the calamities, entertains such desires, then in fact he is deprived of reality. His advice and instruction will not
18. The structure of this Tareeq (Path) revolves on the protection of
the Aadaab of the Shari'ah, on guarding oneself against haraam and mushtabah
on guarding the senses against the prohibitions of the Shari'ah, preventing one's moments from negligence and connecting them (one's moments) to Allah and on not
regarding as Halaal even a grain in which there is doubt even in times of need, leave alone times of comfort and prosperity.
The Mureed is required to perpetually struggle in abstaining from lust
and lowly desire. He who has complied with his desires has destroyed his
acceptance (in this
Path). The worst thing which can happen to the Mureed is his return to a lust or desire which he had shunned for the sake of Allah Ta'ala.
19. It is not befitting the rank of the Mureed to accept the politeness
of women. This has been the method of all the Saalikeen of this Path. When
it is prohibited to
even accept the politeness of women then to a far greater degree will its acquisition be forbidden. This has been the way of the Shu'yookh. Whoever considers this
an insignificant thing will soon be faced with affairs which will bring him to disgrace.
20. It is essential for the Mureed to keep aloof of the seekers of the
world because their companionship has been proven to be poison. Allah Ta'ala
has said that one
should not follow a person whose heart Allah has turned away from Allah's remembrance. Ahl-e-Zuhd (the people of abstention, i.e. the Saalikeen) are in the quest
of Allah's Proximity and in this endeavour they spend wealth. Ahl-e-Safaa ((he purified ones) in their endeavors to acquire the Companionship of Allah expel from
their hearts all creation in general, and acquaintances in particular.
1. A sinner who repents is nobler than a man whose worship is followed by pride.
2. The sign of the heart enjoying a connection with Allah Ta'ala is the heart's inability to find enjoyment in any relationship of the world.
3. Sleep with maut under your pillow and when you arise do not have much hope in life.
4. Never consider sin to be small. Regard sin as great. He who thinks slightly of sin has considered Allah to be insignificant.
5. Guard the nafs at all times.
6. Abstention from sin is of greater importance than Ibaadat.
7. A little of Halaal earnings is superior to earnings which are in abundance, but haraam. Respect is in contentment and comfort in abstention.
8. A strong Sabr is to be pleased with one's lot.
9. Courage is to acquire the knowledge of the Deen. Perfect practice is that which is accompanied by Ikhlaas (sincerity).
10. It is of the acts of courage that one acquires the knowledge of the Deen; practice perfectly with sincerity, and be fully contented and adopt beautiful patience.
11. A sheep is nobler than a man who sacrifices the commands of Allah for the sake of his desire, for the call of the shepherd is heard by the sheep.
12. The association of the pious is better than acts of piety and the association of the evil is worse than acts of evil.
13. The non-existence of even a grain of vanity and falsehood in one is an aspect of Ma'rifat.
14. The look cast without the intention of gaining admonition and lesson
is total neglect and a medium of disgrace. Freedom is obtained by trampling
the desires of
the nafs underfoot. Elimination of envy occasions the love of Allah.
15. When speaking, speak the truth whether in anger or in happiness.
16. Three persons depart with regret at the time of death. A man who
spent his life accumulating wealth without having realized contentment.
A man who did not
obtain what he had wished for. A man who did not prepare his stock for the Hereafter.
17. Abstain from the companionship of a friend who causes you no benefit
of the Aakhirah. The friendship of worldly people is like something which
colour but bad taste. Hadhrat Hasan (Rahmatullah Alayh)said: "Never listen to music no matter what rank you have attained."
18. The knowledge of a man who prefers conversation with people to remembrance of Allah, is little; his heart is blind and his life is wasted.
19. The lowest degree of harm which befalls a man who befriends the
world is that Allah Ta'ala eliminates the pleasure of His remembrance and
supplication from his
20. Shaitaan does not bother about the one who in this world is a seeker
of the pleasure of the nafs because such a person has himself gone astray.
then has shaitaan to search for him?
21. Hadhrat Shaikh Muhammad Waasi' (Rahmatullah Alayh) was among the
very greatest Auliyaa. A man requested Naseehat of him. The Shaikh said:
"I will give
you such Naseehat by means of which you may become the king of the world, and obtain peace in the Aakhirah. Adopt zuhd (abstention) in this world. Never have
any greed or hope regarding any man. Regard all creation to be dependant on Allah. It is then evident that you will become independent of all. This is the meaning of
becoming a king."
22. Ruin comes to a person from six avenues.
Weakness of intention regarding the acts of the Aakhirah.
Obedience to the commands of shaitaan and striving in that direction.
Inspite of nearness of death, to entertain distant hopes and plans.
To adopt the pleasure of people in preference to the Pleasure of Allah.
To abstain from the Sunnah of Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam because of obedience to the desires of the nafs.
To cite the errors of previous Auliyaa as proof for one's acts and to bury their excellences.
23. The sign of love for Allah Ta'ala is that one follows the character, acts, laws and ways of the beloved of Allah (i.e. of Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam)
24. These ten attitudes will prove greatly beneficial in this world and the Aakhirah:
Truth with sincerity; justice with creation; wrath with the nafs; service
to the saints; love and mercy upon little ones; generosity with the dervishes;
admonition to friends; patience with enemies; silence with ignoramuses and humility with the Ulama.
25. Stay among people, but remain aloof. Your body should be among creation,
but your heart with the Creator. This will ensure that negligence does
you. Beware of such negligence lest you conform with people in a way which entails opposition to Allah and His displeasure.
26. The sign of proximity and love of Allah Ta'ala is shunning all things which impede the love of Allah;
27. There are two kinds of Taubah: Taubah-e-Inaabat and Taubah-e-Isti'jaabat.
Taubah-e-Inaabat is to repent of sins because of the fear of Allah's punishment.
Taubah-e-Isti'jaabat is to resort to Taubah because of shame for Allah Ta'ala. One's Ibaadat is absolutely insignificant in the presence of His Majesty and Splendour.
28. Every part of the body has its taubah. The taubah of the heart is
its intention to abstain from haraam. The taubah of the eye is not to glance
at things forbidden.
The taubah of the ear is not to listen to evil and nonsensical talk. The taubah of the hands is not to raise them toward that which has been forbidden. The taubah of
the stomach is to refrain from consuming haraam. The taubah of one's modesty is to, abstain from acts of immorality and fornication.
29. A contemptible person is one who Inspite of being ignorant of the Path of Allah does not enquire about it.
30. People said to Hadhrat Baa yazeed Bustaami Rahmatullah Alayhi: "You
are a performer of many miracles. You walk on the surface of water." He
is no miracle. Twigs also float on water." People said: "But you fly in the air." He replied: "This too is no miracle, for tiny insects too fly in the air." People said: "It is
indeed a great miracle that within a single night you travel to Makkah Mu'azzamah." He replied: ''This too is nothing. Sorcerers journey in a single night from
Hindustan to Mount Diyaanand." People said: "What then is a miracle?" He replied: "A miracle is engrossment of the heart with none besides Allah."
31. Your relationship with your Shaikh should be like the relationship
of Hadhrat Siddique Akbar Radhiyallahu Anhu with Rasulullah Sallallahu
alayhi wasallam. He
never contradicted Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam in either the Deen or the Dunyaa. One should have a Shaikh fitting the description given by Hadhrat Junaid
Rahmatullah Alayh, the Qur'aan-e-Kareem, in his right hand, the Sunnah of Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam in his left hand and he (the Shaikh) should walk in
the light of these two lamps so that one does nor fall in the pits of doubt nor in the darkness of Bid'ah.
32. When man considers his nafs to be despicable and contemptible, it
is the sign of Allah loving and honouring him. And, when he considers his
nafs to be
honourable and when his defects remain hidden from him, it is the sign of Allah's detestation for him.
Ameer-ul Mu'mineen, Imaam-ul Mashaariq-e-wal Maghaarib Hadhrat Ali(Karra-m-allahu Wajhahu) said:
''I have selected from the Tauraat Shareef twelve statements and I daily reflect on these statements thrice."
These twelve statements follow hereunder.
ALLAH TA'ALA SAYS:
1. O man ! Never fear any shaitaan and king as long as My Reign endures.
2. O man ! Never be worried aboutyour food as long as you find My treasures to be filled. My treasures neverdecrease nor will be depleted.
3. O man ! when you become helplessin any affair, call Me, and most certainly, you will find Me. I am thebestower of all things and all goodness.
4. O man ! Be assured that I regardyou as My friend. You therefore, befriend Me.
5. O man ! Do not become fearlessof Me until you have crossed the Bridge (in Qiyaamah).
6. O man ! I have created you outof dust, sperm and a blood-clot. I was not without perfect power when creating you, how then can I be without power in feeding you? Why then do you seekfrom others?
7. O man ! I have created all thingsfor you and, I have created you for My Ibaadat. But you have become trappedin that which has been created for your service and you have drifted awayfrom Me for the sake of others.
8. O man ! All creation desires something for themselves while I desire you for your own sake, but yourun from Me.
9. O man ! You are displeased with Me because of the desires of the nafs, but never did you becomedispleasedwith your nafs for My sake.
10. O man ! My Ibaadat is incumbenton you and upon Me is incumbent your feeding. But, in most cases you are deficient in your duty while I am never deficient in feeding you.
11. O man ! You seek future sustenance even today, but I do not desire from you the Ibaadat of the future.
12. O man ! You will forever remain in peace and comfort if you are contented with what I have given you. If you are not contented with it, I will assert the greed of the world over you. It will then cause you to run from pillar to post, from door to door in utter contempt and then too you will obtain only that which has been predestined for you.